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ƹǤϡȥ֥ʹ֡ɤƤ!? ưʪǿʹ֤¡֥鵻ѡפζ

2016.02.01

ʤɤθ楰롼פiPS˦ʿ͹¿ǽ˦ˤѤޥ˿ʹ֤Ρּפκǥ˥塼ˤʤäưʪǿʹ֤¡ФΡ֥鵻ѡפˤʤäƤ롣

¡󶡼­䡢γȯʤɰŤܳФ⤬ޤŪ˵ʤסּζ򶼤פʤȽоݤǤ⤢뤳εѤϡ桹ˤɤΤ褦ʱƶͿΤ

֥ʹ֤Υɥʡˡ

ȤϡƱ˰ۤʤäĺ˦äƤ뤳ȡɤ򤤤ߡƹǤϤĤθ楻󥿡鵻ѤѤơֿʹ֤˰ܿ¡֥ӤĹ븦פԤäƤ뤬θ椬ʤСԤŬ礹ɤ¡뤳ȤϤ󡢰ܿѤԤ˾വԤ1ǯ¡󶡤뤳ȤǽˤʤȤΤ

ԤϡԤŬ礹֥ҥȡưʪפΥ뤿ᡢޤưʪμ˥ҥȤδ˦ưʪɤ롣᥹λҵܤᤷлΤҥȤδ˦ʤ黺ޤ줿ưʪϡȤǿʹ֤¡ƤʤĹƤȤθ塢ŦФԤذܿƤΤ
 
2016-02-08_161157

¡󶡼ԤŪ­Ƥ븽Ǥϡ֤ԤäƤƤܿѤǤޤǤˤĹǯȤΥ鵻Ѥοϡ줫ΰŤѤȤ⤤ƤꡢܿԤ˾വԤˤȤäƤϴ˾θǤ

Ūϡ

ʤ顢ưʪǥҥȤ¡Ƥ뤳Ȥϡʹ֤ưʪΡؼ٤ȤƤºɤ餮ƻŪˤΤǤϤʤפȤ꤬̿ǽŦ⤢äƤꡢƹΩNIHˤ2015ǯ9ˤѹơ֥ҥȡưʪפΥ鵻ѤФʳŪļҲŪƶ򿵽Ť˸ƤޤǸٱǤڤ뤳ȤȯɽƤ롣

ƹΩϡǽŪ˥ҥȤǾ˦Ѥ줿硢ưʪǧξ֤ѤäƤޤǽǰƤꡢҥȤδ˦ưʪ⤤ǽʹ֤Τݻޤ޻ޤƤǽݤʤȤȤ

Ʊϡǡ֥鵻Ѥˤޤ줿ǽι⤤ޥ桹ˡؤФƤ٤ȡ椫äƤ뤫⤷ʤȤ򶲤ƤפȽҤ٤ƤꡢθФƿŤʻ򸫤Ƥ롣

ʤ顢ήۻ齸᤿ȿޤʤޥ˰ܿʹ֤ȱ֥ƥȥҥ塼ޥʥɡޥɤǤ˰ʳصѤ̤ѤƤΤ
 
2016-02-08_161259

Τ褦ʸƧޤǡƹΩΰոФƥߥͥؤο¡ʰ˥롦꡼Τϡ֥鵻Ѥθϡ¡ԤĴԤˤȤäƴ˾ǤפȸäƤꡢλٱǤڤϡ̤ΤʤؤζݤǤꡢ줫εѤοŪʱƤȤפȿøȽƤ롣

ֿ¡ΤʤưʪǤפȸ륮꡼ΤϡޤǤˤʶڤɤΤʤ֥ФƤȤߤϥҥȤο¡֥ǰƤ֥ҥȡݥ֥פΥ鸦ΤᡢΦ鸦Ȥ140ɥʤ褽16000ߡˤθٱ뤳ȤƤ롣

ոʬ륭鵻ѤǤ뤬θϺδ˦ʪؤѤ˸ˤʤǽ⤢롣ե˥ߥͥߤ3θ򥤥󥿥ӥ塼MITƥΥӥ塼פˤȡ12֤ǽлˤϻʤäΤΡ֥ҥȡݥ֥ס֥ҥȡӡפΥǥ20ǧƤۤˤ⥫ե˥ˤ륽Υ󡦥٥ΤޤǤ12ʾΡ֥ҥȡݥ֥ץǥȯɽƤꡢҥȤδ˦äưʪνл˸ƸʤƤȤ

ưʪǰƤ¡ҥȤ˰ܿϡ

ǤϡºݤưʪǺ줿¡郎ܿǤȤʤä硢ΰϤɤʤΤ

¡ܿѤκݡäˤʤΤֵȿפǤ롣շȱ֤ʤɤŬ礷ƤƤ⡢¡ܿȼȤΤˡ¾ͤκ˦פäƤ뤿ᡢΤϤӽ褦ȱֺ˦Ƥ˹Ϥ롣εȿߤ˥ȥǤʤȡܿ줿¡Ư졢ǰξ˻⤢ȤȿǤ롣
 
2016-02-08_161422

椬ˤ륭鵻ѤͼԤȸ봴˦ʪؼԤⷼϡ2010ǯ˥ޥǥåȤΤ¡뤳ȤƤꡢ֤ûƱͤ˺ѤΤǤСҥȤ¡ĥ֥뤳ȤǤϤǤפȤƤ

ܤǤϡʹ֤κ˦ưʪ˰ܿ뵻ѤܤθؿˤǶؤƤᡢ2013ǯ˥鵻Ѥ¤ߤƤʤƥեؤ˶ȤǤե˥ŵCIRMˤʤ600ɥ71000ߡˤθٱ⤬ٵ뤵ƤΤ󥿥ӥ塼ⶵϡܤεˤ꼫Ȥθ椬2ǯʾ٤줿פƤꡢꥹϤȤʤȤͭŦƤ롣

ߡⶵϴԼȤκ˦¡iPS˦ѤԤäƤ뤬iPS˦Ĺ¡ϡȤưʪĹȤƤⴰʰܿ¡ȤŬ礹Ȥޤ¡­Ȥ顢ܿѤޤǤ˲ǯԤʤФʤʤ뤬Υ鵻Ѥˤܿ¡1ǯ˺ФȤǽˤʤȤȤ

̿Ūˤϸ¤ʤ졼˶ᤤ鵻ѤǤ뤬¡ԤӤƤɥʡ餹СʸȤ⤤뵻Ѥ˸椬ʤСʹ֤µưʪФ°뤳ȤǤ褦ˤʤ뤫⤷ʤ줫ΰؤοȡοŸܤΥʤ

ʸ

͡Before It's Newsסʳصѿסۤ

ȸ TOCANA




¿ǽ˦ѤƥޥǥåȤ¡뤳Ȥ

ʣӣ 跿øΰĤȤơذʳظ ȣʣӣ άŪ¤ʻ ţңԣϷⴴ˦ץȡפξ Ӵϡޥ˥åȤ¿ǽ˦ͳ¡ʤˤ뤳Ȥޤ

ߡ¡ɤμŤˤ¡ܿ͹¡郎ѤƤޤɥʡ­Ŭʤɲ褹٤¿ܿǽ¡򴵼ԼȤκ˦뤳ȤϺŤνפɸΣĤȤʤäƤޤ

¡Τ褦ʻŪʹ¤γǺƸ뤳Ȥ϶ˤƺǤܸǤϡ˦䴰ˡʤϤФۤۤۤˡפȤѤѤơޥ˥åȤ¡뤳ȤޤŪˤϡ¡Ǥʤ褦˰ޥμ˦ʼˤãʳǡʥåͳ¿ǽ˦Ƥλҵܤذܿޤ

η̡ޤƤޥ¡ƥåȤ¿ǽ˦ͳ¡֤äƤޤޤΥޥΤˤȯ餷󥹥ʬ礹ʤ¡ȤƤ˵ǽޤޥȥåȤȤĶ˦䴰ˡȤ顢ܸ̤ѤСҥȤ¡郎ɤΤ褦˷ΤΥᥫ˥ۼưʪDzϤ뤳Ȥǽˤʤޤ

緿ưʪǥҥ¡ȤäŵѤγȯ礭׸ΤȴԤޤܸؤȶƱǹԤ졢ܸ̤ϡǯƹ֡ȯԤƹʳػ֣ãפ˷Ǻܤޤ

̤ϡʲλȡץȤˤäޤ

άŪ¤ʻ ţңԣϷ
ץ ⴴ˦ץȡ
ذʳظꡡ
ʿǯ

ʣӣԤϤΥץȤǡ¡ȯδŪȡθ˴Ť¡ˡΩΤοѤθԤäƤޤ

㸦طʤȷаޡ
¡ɤμŤˤϸߡ˿͹¡¡ܿѤƤޤ㤨ξ硢󣳣ͤοͤ͹ƩϤƤޤʼˡ Ʃϰز񡡣ǯǡˡμǯ֣ߤĶݸҤƤФǤʤ⤳δԤ¿ιʻɤ˶줷Ǥޤ

ǿհܿϡͭʼŤȹͤޤˡ ¡ܿͥåȥΥǡˤȣǯǰܿԵԤ󣱣ͤˤΤܤꡢ񳰤ǰܿȤϹҰܿȤʤäƤޤθ裱̤ǢվɤǤꡢǢ¤äȼäԤäΰӤ򤿤ɤäƤޤ

Τ褦طʤ桢ܿǽ¡򴵼ԼȤκ˦뤳ȤϺŤνפɸΣĤȤʤäƤޤΤκ˦ȤƴԤƤΤƤκ˦ʬǽ¿ǽ˦Ǥ

¿ǽ˦Ǥ˦ţ ӣ 졧ţӺ˦ˤҥȼ񤫤Ωư衢׾Ѥܻؤ¿θ椬ʤƤޤä˶ǯͶƳ¿ǽ˦ У ӣ 졧УӺ˦˵Ѥγȯˤꡢʬʤκ˦ţӺ˦ȤۤƱǽϤ¿ǽ˦˴ؤĺƸ褯žǤ뤳Ȥǽˤʤޤˤȼʬ¿ǽ˦ɤγ˾ߤκ˦뤳ȤؤƻǢ¤ѡ󥽥¤ʤɤΤޤޤʼμŤ˱Ѥ褦ȤƤޤ

¡뤿ˤϡλŪʹ¤γǺƸʤФʤ餺ˤޤܸǤϡ˦䴰ˡʣ£ ˡפεѤܤޤ˦䴰ˡȤϡκ˦ǽϤ»Ƥޥ˦ʥޥͳ¿ǽ˦ˤΩȡ»˦¿ǽ˦ͳΤΤ֤ȤΤǡ飱ǯۤ˥ѵ»ޥѤƤθ𤵤Ƥޤ󡢤θѤŪ¡»ޥ˦¿ǽ˦뤳Ȥ¿ǽ˦ͳ¡郎ʤȹͤƸʤޤ

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ʣ˦䴰ˡѤ¿ǽ˦¡Сʿޣ
ܸǤϤޤ˦䴰ˡˤ¡郎뤫餫ˤ뤿ᡢޥ¿ǽ˦ȡ¡Ǥʤ褦˰УΥåȡʣˣϡ˥ޥˤѤ¿ǽ˦ͳ¡뤫ߤޤУ ˣϥޥ˦пָѤţǣƣФɸ¿ǽ˦ʣţӺ˦⤷ϣУӺ˦ˤƤλҵܤذܿ塢Ϥޤη̡¿ǽ˦δͿǧ줿У ˣϥޥ¡ϡͤˣţǣƣзָ򼨤ޤʿޣˡ

ţǣƣ˦ʬۤȡ¡εǽ򼨤ΰҤȤؤȿŪ˳ǧȤ¡볰ʬȿʬȿ繴ɤΤ줾줬ƣţǣƣ¿ǽ˦ͳκ˦鹽ƤޤΤ褦¡äޥϹʤɤξɾ򼨤ȤʤΤޤȯ餷ǽƤ뤳Ȥ顢¿ǽ˦ͳ¡˵ǽƤ뤳ȤʬޤޤУӺ˦ͳ¡ñΥǢ¥ޥ˰ܿƷﲽ뤳ȤˤܿΥɥʡȤƤѤǤ뤳Ȥ򼨤ޤΤȤ顢˦䴰ˡˤ¿ǽ˦ͳεǽŪ¡Ф뤳Ȥʬޤ

ʣ˥ޥӥå¿ǽ˦Ѥۼưʪ֥ˤΩʿޣ¡
˰ۼưʪ֤ˤ륭ǽǧ뤿ᡢ¿ǽ˦ʣţӺ˦⤷ϣУӺ˦ˤѤޥݥåȴ֤ΰۼưʪ֥ߤޤţǣƣɸޥ¿ǽ˦åȤ˦ˡդˣţǣƣɸå¿ǽ˦ޥ˦ȤޥӥåȤ¿ǽ˦ϸߤȯ˴Ϳ¸ǽʰۼưʪ֥κޤʿޣˡţǣƣзָɸ˰ۼ¿ǽ˦ͳκ˦ʬۤǧȤۤƤȿˤƣţǣƣ˦¸ߤǧ줿Ȥ顢¿ǽ˦Ѥ뤳ȤΥޥݥåȰۼưʪ֥뤳Ȥ줿¿ǽ˦ϰۼưʪδĶˤƤȯФȤεǽŪʺ˦ʬǤ뤳Ȥʬޤ

ʣ˰ۼ˦䴰ˡѤơޥ˥åȤ¡ʿޣá
Ǹˡ嵭ʣˤȡʣˤθȤ߹碌ƥåȣУӺ˦У ˣϥޥ˦뤳Ȥǡۼưʪ˦䴰ˡ𤷤ƥåȤ¡ޥ˺ФȻߤޤη̡У ˣϥޥǰͤˣţǣƣзָ򼨤åȣУӺ˦ͳ¡Ф뤳ȤޤʿޣˡȿŪʲϤˤƤͤˣţǣƣзָ򼨤˦ǹƤꡢ¡εǽ򼨤ΰҤȯǧޤޤΥåȣУӺ˦ͳ¡äУ ˣϥޥΤˤȯ餷ʿޣˡǽƤޤ

ʾη̤顢ޥ˥åȤ¿ǽ˦ͳ¡뤳Ȥǡۼưʪ֤˦䴰ˡˤۼ¿ǽ˦ͳ¡Ȥޤ

㺣Ÿ
ܸ̤顢¿ǽ˦˦Τ褦ˡѤ˦Ŭڤʥߥ󥰤ȾƱĴС㤨ۼưʪδĶǤäƤ⡢ȯѤƳ줿˦ͳ¡Ф뤳ȤʬޤθѤСҥȤ¡郎ɤΤ褦˷ΤΥᥫ˥ۼưʪDzϤ뤳Ȥǽˤʤޤ˴ͳ¿ǽ˦䡢γʬ˦ȿ緿ưʪθΤŬڤʥߥ󥰤Ⱦ˰ܿ뤳ȤǡȤ¡뤳Ȥǽˤʤ뤫⤷ޤ󡣤Τ褦ܸǾϡ¡ȤŤκǽŪŪ¸뤿κǽΥƥåפȤʤꤦΤȴԤޤ

ޣܸ̤γά

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ޣޥݥåȰۼưʪ֥

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桧åȣУӺ˦Υޥ˦ƤǤޥ
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ޣʣˣУ ˣϥޥ˺줿åȣУӺ˦ͳ¡ˤȡ
ʣ˥åȣУӺ˦ͳ¡ģУ ˣϥޥ

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Ѹ
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ʤɤο͹Ū˹줿ﲼʣ ˤ̵¤ǽΤƤȿκ˦ʬǽʺ˦

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ǯˣʣ ãˤä𤵤줿ˡȱ֥֥ιɬפʹǣң磲»Ϥѵʤң磲Υåȡʣˣϡ˥ޥ˦ʣţӺ˦뤳ȤǥޥϤȤϤѵƣţӺ˦ͳΤΤǤäΤȤ˦ȯ˴ͿţӺ˦ͳκ˦»Ƥ˦䴰Ǥ뤳Ȥ򼨤

˦ʣţ ӣ 졧ţӺ˦
˦ʼ壴٤ˤ¸ߤ˦Ω¿ǽ˦ޥǤϣǯˣͣ ţˤäơҥȤǤϣǯˣʣ ԣˤäơμΩ𤵤줿

ͶƳ¿ǽ˦ʣ У ӣ 졧УӺ˦
Τ¸ߤκ˦ΰҡʽǤϣϣӣˣ棴ݣͣΣġˤƳ뤳ȤͶƳ¿ǽ˦ޥǤϣǯˡҥȤǤϣǯˡ줾ؤλ ˤäƼΩ𤵤줿


ƱΤ塢⤷ϣţӺ˦˦뤳ȤΤǡʾΰŪ˰ۤʤ˦ʤ롣ޥǤϤΤȤѤŤΥåȥޥѤƤ

УΥåȡʣˣϡ˥ޥ
У¡ȯ濴Ūž̰ҤǡΰҤ˲줿ޥʥΥåȥޥˤ¡ʤᡢ夹˻˴롣

ۼưʪ֥
ȼΰۤʤɣʾκ˦ѤƺΡǯˣƣ áϥҥĥݥ䥮Υȣǣʥסˡɤκޥݥåȴ֤Ǥϣ ǺϤǤΤ¸ǽʥ¸ߤϳ̵Ǥä

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Generation of Rat Pancreas in Mouse by Interspecific Blastocyst Injection of Pluripotent Stem Cells ¿ǽ˦Ȱۼ˦䴰ˡѤޥˤå¡κС
doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.039

ȸ ذʳظ ˦Ÿ楻󥿡


Scary as Hell! Soul-less Human-Animal Chimeras Now Grown On U.S. Research Farms! (Videos)

Tuesday, January 12, 2016 11:26

inhuman evil chaos

12 Jan 16

We are NOT kidding here!

A radical new approach to generating human organs is to grow them inside pigs or sheep. WHAT are we DOING?! Have we NO MORAL GROUND anymore?



Human-Animal Chimeras Gestating on US Research Farms



Chimeras–animal embryos with human DNA–are gestating on research farms in the US. Also: DARPA working to develop super soldiers, the passing of pop icon David Bowie, and is Pakistans nuke threat against Iran related to Jeremiahs prophecy against Elam?

Human-Animal Chimeras Are Gestating on U.S. Research Farms
A radical new approach to generating human organs is to grow them inside pigs or sheep.

By Antonio Regalado

Braving a funding ban put in place by Americas top health agency, some U.S. research centers are moving ahead with attempts to grow human tissue inside pigs and sheep with the goal of creating hearts, livers, or other organs needed for transplants.

The effort to incubate organs in farm animals is ethically charged because it involves adding human cells to animal embryos in ways that could blur the line between species.

Last September, in a reversal of earlier policy, the National Institutes of Healthannounced it would not support studies involving such human-animal chimeras until it had reviewed the scientific and social implications more closely.

The agency, in a statement, said it was worried about the chance that animals cognitive state could be altered if they ended up with human brain cells.

The NIH action was triggered after it learned that scientists had begun such experiments with support from other funding sources, including from Californias state stem-cell agency. The human-animal mixtures are being created by injecting human stem cells into days-old animal embryos, then gestating these in female livestock.

Based on interviews with three teams, two in California and one in Minnesota, MIT Technology Review estimates that about 20 pregnancies of pig-human or sheep-human chimeras have been established during the last 12 months in the U.S., though so far no scientific paper describing the work has been published, and none of the animals were brought to term.

The extent of the research was disclosed in part during presentations made at the NIHs Maryland campus in November at the agencys request. One researcher, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte of the Salk Institute, showed unpublished data on more than a dozen pig embryo containing human cells. Another, from the University of Minnesota, provided photographs of a 62-day-old pig fetus in which the addition of human cells appeared to have reversed a congenital eye defect.

The experiments rely on a cutting-edge fusion of technologies, including recent breakthroughs in stem-cell biology and gene-editing techniques. By modifying genes, scientists can now easily change the DNA in pig or sheep embryos so that they are genetically incapable of forming a specific tissue. Then, by adding stem cells from a person, they hope the human cells will take over the job of forming the missing organ, which could then be harvested from the animal for use in a transplant operation.

We can make an animal without a heart. We have engineered pigs that lack skeletal muscles and blood vessels, says Daniel Garry, a cardiologist who leads a chimera project at the University of Minnesota. While such pigs arent viable, they can develop properly if a few cells are added from a normal pig embryo. Garry says hes already melded two pigs in this way and recently won a $1.4 million grant from the U.S. Army, which funds some biomedical research, to try to grow human hearts in swine.

The specter of an intelligent mouse stuck in a laboratory somewhere screaming I want to get out would be very troubling to people.

Because chimeras could provide a new supply of organs for needy patients and also lead to basic discoveries, researchers including Garry say they intend to press forward despite the NIH position. In November, he was one of 11 authors who published a letter criticizing the agency for creating a threat to progress that casts a shadow of negativity on their work.

The worry is that the animals might turn out to be a little too human for comfort, say ending up with human reproductive cells, patches of people hair, or just higher intelligence. We are not near the island of Dr. Moreau, but science moves fast, NIH ethicist David Resnik said during the agencys November meeting. The specter of an intelligent mouse stuck in a laboratory somewhere screaming I want to get out would be very troubling to people.

The chance of an animal gaining human consciousness is probably slim; their brains are just too different, and much smaller. Even so, as a precaution, researchers working with farm-animal chimeras havent yet permitted any to be born, but instead are collecting fetuses in order to gather preliminary information about how great the contribution of human cells is to the animals bodies.

chimerax519

Injecting cells from one species into the embryo of another creates mixtures called chimeras. From left to right: an ordinary mouse, a mouse thats partly rat, a rat thats partly mouse, a white rat.

Hiromitsu Nakauchi, a stem-cell biologist at Stanford University, began trying to make human-sheep chimeras this year. He says that so far the contribution by human cells to the animals bodies appears to be relatively small. If the extent of human cells is 0.5 percent, its very unlikely to get thinking pigs or standing sheep, he says. But if its large, like 40 percent, then wed have to do something about that.

Other kinds of human-animal chimeras are already widely used in scientific research, including humanized mice endowed with a human immune system. Such animals are created by adding bits of liver and thymus from a human fetus (collected after an abortion) to a mouse after it is born.

The new line of research goes further because it involves placing human cells into an animal embryo at the very earliest stage, when it is a sphere of just a dozen cells in a laboratory dish. This process, called embryo complementation, is significant because the human cells can multiply, specialize, and potentially contribute to any part of the animals body as it develops.

In 2010, while working in Japan, Nakauchi used the embryo complementation method to show he could generate mice with a pancreas made entirely of rat cells. If it works as it does in rodents, he says, we should be able have a pig with a human organ.

What if the embryo that develops is mostly human? Its something that we dont expect, but no one has done this experiment, so we cant rule it out.

Although Nakauchi was a star scientist, Japanese regulators were slow to approve his idea for chimeras—a pig man as critics put it—and by 2013 Nakauchi decided to move to the U.S., where no federal law restricts the creation of chimeras. Stanford was able to recruit him with the help of a $6 million grant from the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine, a state agency set up a decade ago to bypass political interference from Washington.

While the NIH funding ban doesnt affect Nakauchi, it has put researchers under pressure to explain the purpose of their work. I want to show you some chimeras, Nakauchi said when I visited his laboratory at Stanford last month. He opened the door to a small room containing incubators where the chimeric embryos are stored. Because an early embryo is almost invisible to the human eye, the room houses special microscopes equipped with micro-needles used to inject the human cells into them.

The type of human cells being added are called iPS cells, made from skin or blood chemically reprogrammed into more versatile stem cells using a Nobel Prize-winning formula developed by one of Nakauchis Japanese colleagues. Nakauchi says that as a matter of convenience, most of the iPS cells his team has been placing into animal embryos are made from his own blood, since recruiting volunteers involves too much paperwork.

We need a special consent if were injecting into animals, he says sheepishly. So I try to use my own.

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A pig at the swine unit of the University of California, Davis. Scientists hope to grow human organs in such animals.

The word chimera comes from the creature of Greek myth, part lion, part goat, and part snake. Nakauchi says most people at first imagine his chimeras are monsters, too. But he says attitudes change if he can explain his proposal. One reason is that if his iPS cells develop inside an animal, the resulting tissue will actually be his, a kind of perfectly matched replacement part. Desperately ill people on organ waiting lists might someday order a chimera and wait less than a year for their own custom organ to be ready. I really dont see much risk to society, he says.

Before that can happen, scientists will have to prove that human cells can really multiply and contribute effectively to the bodies of farm animals. That could be challenging since, unlike rats and mice, which are fairly close genetically, humans and pigs last shared an ancestor nearly 90 million years ago.

To find out, researchers in 2014 decided to begin impregnating farm animals with human-animal embryos, says Pablo Ross, a veterinarian and developmental biologist at the University of California, Davis, where some of the animals are being housed. Ross says at Davis he has transferred about six sets of pig-human embryos into sows in collaboration with the Salk Institute and established another eight or 10 pregnancies of sheep-human embryos with Nakauchi. Another three dozen pig transfers have taken place outside the U.S., he says.

These early efforts arent yet to make organs, says Ross, but more to determine the ideal conditions for generating human-animal chimeras. The studies at Davis began only after a review by three different ethics committees, and even then, he says, the university decided to be cautious and limit the time the animals would be allowed to develop to just 28 days (a pig is born in 114 days).

By then, the embryonic pig is only half an inch long, though thats developed enough to check if human cells are contributing to its rudimentary organs.

We dont want to grow them to stages we dont need to, since that would be more controversial, says Ross. My view is that the contribution of human cells is going to be minimal, maybe 3 percent, maybe 5 percent. But what if they contributed to 100 percent of the brain? What if the embryo that develops is mostly human? Its something that we dont expect, but no one has done this experiment, so we cant rule it out. SOURCE

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IQ Tests Suggest Pigs Are Smart as Dogs, Chimps

JUN 11, 2015 11:39 AM
 
dnews-files-2015-06-pig-150611-jpg

Pigs can often outsmart dogs and are on about the same intellectual level as our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, according to a new paper.

The research project, described in a paper published in the International Journal of Comparative Psychology, aims to put a face on animals that are traditionally just viewed as sources of meat.

We have shown that pigs share a number of cognitive capacities with other highly intelligent species such as dogs, chimpanzees, elephants, dolphins, and even humans, neuroscientist Lori Marino of Emory University and The Nonhuman Rights Project said in a press release. There is good scientific evidence to suggest we need to rethink our overall relationship to them.

Top 10 Most Intelligent Animals

Marino and co-author Christina Colvin, also from Emory, came to that conclusion after reviewing dozens of studies conducted on pigs and other animals. Often studies on cognition and behavior focus on only a single characteristic, so the researchers in this case compiled the findings into a single document.

They found that pigs:

• have excellent long-term memories

• are whizzes with mazes and other tests requiring location of objects

• can comprehend a simple symbolic language and can learn complex combinations of symbols for actions and objects

• love to play and engage in mock fighting with each other, similar to play in dogs and other mammals

• live in complex social communities where they keep track of individuals and learn from one another

• cooperate with one another

• can manipulate a joystick to move an on-screen cursor, a capacity they share with chimpanzees

• can use a mirror to find hidden food

• exhibit a form of empathy when witnessing the same emotion in another individual

Contrast these abilities with the way that pigs are often treated in factory farms. PETA reports that mother pigs (sows) spend most of their lives in what are known as gestation crates, which do not even allow the pigs to turn around. Once they give birth, they are impregnated again, with the cycle continuing for three or four years before the mother is slaughtered.

PETA goes on to mention that in extremely crowded conditions, piglets are prone to stress-related behavior such as cannibalism and tail-biting, so farmers often chop off piglets tails and use pliers to break off the ends of their teeth–without giving them any painkillers.

Animal Planet: Pig Genius

Marino, who is a vegan, and her colleagues have also studied chickens, finding evidence for cognitive, emotional and social complexity. Such ideas might seem laughable to some, but thats the point — our view of these animals tends to be that they are tasty yet non-sentient beings, only good for consumption. The reality is far from that view, according to this and other studies.

The researchers further note that we tend to put pigs in a lesser category than animals like dogs and cats, even though studies show pigs are just as intelligent and empathetic — perhaps even more so — than such pets.

The scientists next plan to study other factory-farmed animals, such as cows and goats. The research is made possible by grant money from Farm Sanctuarys The Someone Project, created to raise the publics understanding of farm animal intelligence and behavior.

Photo: Pig. Credit: pixabay

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֡ߥ¡ڥե륨󥶤麣Υ֥륹Ǥڤλ¿ʪѤ졢ϸ̩Ǥ ڤ¤ĤޤǤ⺬䤵ʤΤϤʤǤ礦11֤ƻڻ̩ޤ 

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ޤ润ƱĴˤȡʪȽŶ°β̻ѤˤäơھǤʪФٶݤ˿ٶݤϤޤڤʵؤ̤ƼϤοھ˿Ʃʹ֤η򹯤˴ڤܤǤ 

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