ŷNEWSƹNEWS׷ʤ

ʹ

ƹ̩¸ǿʹ֤ȥѥ󥸡ι礤λҡ֥̾ҥ塼ޥ󥸡פ

ھ׷ۿʹ֤ȥѥ󥸡Υϥ֥åɡ֥ҥ塼ޥ󥸡פμºߤ˽Ϫ롪 ̾ؼԡָϥѥ˥åˡġ

ʹ֤ȥѥ󥸡ϸۤǤΤ ǽȼĥ̾ʲʳؼԤ¸ߤ롣100ǯΥꥫǸۼ¸Ƥꡢʹ֤ȥѥ󥸡ι礤λҡ֥̾ҥ塼ޥ󥸡humanzeeˡפȤΤ

2018-04-19_185656

ƹ̩¸

ѻThe Daily MirrorפϤȤʣγǥ29󤸤ȤˤȡĤƥҥ塼ޥ󥸡ºߤȼĥƤΤϡơ˥塼衼ΩإХ˹οؼԥɥ󡦥å׻ưʪ˱Ǥäʬ򼫸ʤǧǤ뤫Ĵ٤ǧΥƥȤȯȤǹ̾ʲʳؼԤǡĹθǤΤƤʪå׻ϼ㤤Ĥ̩΢˹Ԥ줿¸ˤĤäʹȤ

å׻ˤȡʹ֤ȥѥ󥸡ۤ¸Ԥ줿Τ1920ǯΤȤ¸ơե󥸥ѡθǹԤ졢ʹ֤դȤäƥ᥹Υѥ󥸡ǥΤΤȤǥ̵˷³䤬ƥ᥹Υѥ󥸡ϡ֥ҥ塼ޥ󥸡פлƤߤȲʳؼԤϥѥ˥å˴٤ꡢŪƻŪθ餳λҤɤ֤ǰ³ڻवȤ

å׻᤬μ¸äʹΤ1930ǯΤȤǡä򤷤Ƥ줿ضͭ̾ʸ浡ؤƯ⤢ꡢΤʪǤȤ

2018-04-19_185834

ϢǤ

ʹ֤Ĺθۼ¸Ԥ줿ΤϥꥫǤϤʤǤͭ̾ʤΤϤϤ1920ǯ˹Ԥ줿ϢǤλǤ͹ȼֻȤƤʪؼԥ䡦Υջϡʹ֤Ҥǥѥ󥸡Υ᥹ǥ¸ԤäȤΤƤ롣¸ظˤϡοǽϤȿʹ֤ǽ碌äĶʼΤȯȤΰոäȤ롣

Υջμ¸ʤä¸˻Ȥä᥹ѥ󥸡ϳǤޤäȤΥջϼμȤơĹΥȿʹ֤νȤ¸ײ褷ƤѰդ󥦡Ҥμ褹˻˴ɼ¸ϹԤʤäȤ롣θ塢ٽŤʤ뼺ԤѤˤäƥΥջϰ̤򼺤äŪȽФƥե˴̿ϡ1932ǯդΤޤ»षȤ롣



ޤƱͤμ¸ǤԤƤȤ롣1967ǯ᥹Ĺबʹ֤ҤǥäǤǤޤäȤϤޤʸ̿λ塣¸ԤäƤʳؼԤ¼ؤƤޤץȤǡ򤨤ʤäΤǤ롣

ΥС֡

ʹ֤ĹλŪˤʤ뤬˺ǤȤʤäΤϡ֥Сפ1970ǯ塢ʹ֤ȥѥ󥸡λȤߤΥСŪȤʤäСϥѥ󥸡ˤƤӤʹ֤Τ褦ʴĤǡ­Ԥ򤷤ƤߤܤǤѤʥ֡򴬤ưФƤ¿1996ǯθǽʥѥ󥸡Ǥ뤳ȤʬäƤ롣

2018-04-19_190012

å׻Ͽʹ֤ȥѥ󥸡䥴顢󥦡Ȥθۤϲǽȼĥȿʹ֤λ򼨤֥ҥhurillaˡפ䥪󥦡ȿʹ֤λɽ֥ҥ塼hurangˡפȤñޤ󾧤Ƥ롣Ʊˡ뤳Ȥ񤷤ȤǧƤ롣

ҥ塼ޥ󥸡ºݤ˺ȤΤ̥ŪŪƻŪˤ¿ޤ¸ԤȤåȤ뤫ϵȥå׻ἫȤǧƤ롣ʹ֤ĹϸۤǤΤ ζ̣ơޤϾ뤳ȤΤʤޤޡ١ˤʤΤ

Խ

͡The SunסMirrorסۤ

ȸ TOCANA


ɤؤǡ֥ȿʹ֤Υϥ֥åɡ Τ⡪

2016.06.17

ʳʬǤϤʤȡԻ׵ʬˤ¤ؤX᤬ζŷǿʪ˥塼륷꡼

ɤǿʹ֤ȥΥϥ֥åɤȤسΥ˥塼Ϥ

Disclose.tvפ˷Ǻܤ줿ˤСʹ֤ȥι礤λҤǤ֤˷ޤ줿ȯɽΤϥɲʳءThe Indian University of ScienceˤθԤʹ֤ȥݤ碌ߤ1980ǯ夫̩˹ԤƤꡢĤȤΤȡ

2018-04-19_190536

ˤ֤˷μ̿ǺܤƤ롣䤹̲뤽δϿʹ֤ϥ˻Ƥꡢȩ˿郎ޤƤ롣

ޤ줿֤˷ϡإҥHurillaˡ٤ȸƤФ졢7֤λν18.2ݥɡ8.3ˡĹ2460᡼ȥˤĹƤ롣Ԥν250300ݥɡ113136ˡĹ6եȡ183᡼ȥˤۤɤĹͽ¬Ƥ롣ҥΤ47ܤǿʹ֡46ܡˤȥ48ܡˤ֤ǤꡢǥΤ¹ϻĤʤȤ

桹®ʪؤ˾ܤX˥ҥβ򸫤ƤäXϵ路ɽʤä

ֿʹ֤ȥΥϥ֥åɤǤʪȤϤäȻפޤ󡣥ǥޤˤƤ⥴ѥ󥸡ޤޤ͡

ͥǥ륿

2018-04-19_190851

̤ơXεǰǤäĴη̡εϥեǤ뤳Ȥ狼äޤɲʳءThe Indian University of ScienceˤȤ¸ߤʤơҥȤ2005ǯ˥ꥫեưʪޤ줿äΥ֤ΤΤǤ뤳ȤȯФ

ƺεϸǤäΤºݤ˿ʹ֤ȥδ֤˻ҶǤǽϤΤäʤΤX˿ҤͤƤߤ

ѥ󥸡ȿʹ֤Υϥ֥åɤʤвǽ

֤ޤ̵Ǥ礦͡ȥҥȤǤϷŪ˱󤹤ޤ¸ưʪǥҥȤ˰ֶᤤΤϥѥ󥸡ǤǤ󤤤ºݤ˥ϥ֥åɤޤ줿ȤäʹȤޤ󤬡ǽȤƤϥǤ礦

СϤȥФΥϥ֥åɡˤʤɡ֤˻郎ޤȤ߹碌ϤĤΤƤ뤬°٥ǤƱǤȤ߹碌ϥҥȲʥ°ѥ󥸡ϥѥ󥸡°ƿʹ֤ϥҥ°Ǥ롣

֥ҥ°ϸߡ桹ۥ⥵ԥ󥹤ΤߤǤĤ¸ߤͥǥ륿͡ʥۥͥǥ륿󥷥ˤʤɤȤϸ򻨤ƤȹͤƤޤǶΥΥฦˤȡ䤿ͤΥΥˤϥͥǥ륿ͤκפȤ櫓ĤäƤ뤽Ǥ

ĤƤϿʹ֤Ǥ¾ͱȸ򻨤򤷤Ƥ餷X۩Τ褦ʸۤϿʲθưϤˤʤꤦȤ

˥ҥȤν򤵤äƻҶ򻺤ޤβʪäĤäƤޤޤ褬äȤϤ˻ĤäƤꡢҥޥΥƥˤ⤽⤬뤽ǤĤƶͱȸ򻨤Ƥ̾ĤʤΤ⤷ޤ

ʹ֤ȱδطϻ䤿פ⡢⤷餺äȿΤ⤷ʤ

ʵȰ椤Ĥ

Υ꡼ϥ

͡disclose.tvסseaworld.org

ȸ TOCANA


̴ְǤ̼οब¤ǽġסڥҥȥΥײȯɽۤΤٹ

2016.06.14

ʳʬǤϤʤȡԻ׵ʬˤ¤ؤX᤬ζŷǿʪ˥塼륷꡼

2018-04-19_193252

ҥȥΥ줫͹Ū˹Ȥä٤ײ褬62դScienceȯɽ줿30Фʤʹ֤DNAƲعǽŪˤ˦ȤƼΩΤɸȤ

Human Genome Project-write (HGP-write) ̾դ줿ηײϡꥫθԤ濴Ȥʤä̱ץȤǡޤǤˤ֤Ϥ褽10ǯѳȯɬפͽϿƥɥ˾ȤץȤȯͤˤϥ˥塼衼ؤιʪؼԥաܡᡢϡСذرΥΥʳؼԥ硼㡼ʤɡ֤줬¤Ǥ롣

̾ʬ褦ˡHGP-write2004ǯ˴λҥȥΥץȡHGP-writeȶ̤뤿HGP-readɽˤμʤʳȤƷײ褵Ƥ롣

ҥȥΥɤĩHGP-read̤ϡҥȤ߷׿ޤΥDNAǤϤʤDNAϵѤι®㥳Ȳפ̤HGP-readǤϤäҤȤĤΥҥȥΥɤΤ1ƥɥ뤫äߤǤ1000ƥɥ򲼲äƤ롣ΤᡢΥץȤܳФ̤ΤǤϤʤȡԤƤΤ

ޤǤˤ⾮ʺٶݥΥΰ͹Ū˹Ƥ뤬ߤεѤǤ30ФΥҥȥΥ뤳Ȥ񤷤ΤᡢץȤϥΥξҤꡢϤξΤäꤹŪʤΤϤȤƱˡץȤǤϤ²絬ϤDNAν񤭹ߵѤγȯԤΥȤ10ǯ1000ʬ1ۤɤ˰̤뤳ȤɸˤƤ롣

桹̿ͤ餹ȶä٤Ƥʪؤ˾ܤXϡԤȤȤʤ˸ä

2018-04-19_193401

֥ΥץȤˤäƥҥȤᡢ¿ʪʪưʪΥΥ餫ˤʤޤۤ10ǯʪΥɤ뤳Ȥ˥塼ǤǤϻ̵ˤʤޤ󡣸ġΰҤ˴ؤθŪޤDNAο͹䥲ΥΥǥŪȤʪؤȤʬϸܤƤޤ3ˤ¸ɬܤʺǾΰҤäٶݤäȤȯɽ⤢ޤ³ʳȤơҥȥΥꤿȹͤΤϤʤȤǤ礦

HPG-writeС̿ʳؤؤȯŸ¿ʹ׸̤Τϴְ㤤ʤʤ顢ηײ˰۵Ĥ򿽤ΩƤ͡¸ߤ롣ҥȥΥΥǥǽˤ뵻ѤҲͿ륤ѥȤ礭ˤؤ餺ʬ˵ƤȤϸʤ

֤ΥץȤˤϡʪŪʿƤʤᥤɤοʹ֤¤뤤ϲ桹Ȥ̼ο¤ʤɤȤ֤⤢ꤨޤ̵ϤޤǽʳǤʤΤǤΥץȤŸǤϡϼ깤ޤߤSFꤸߤ̴˸虜ʤǤ礦

HPG-writeŪƻŪǰ͡¿ԿäƤΤ¾ʤ̥ץȿɤǤ롣5HGP-write˴ؤĤϡСؤǹԤ줿üԤϼ˼¦˾Ԥ줿100ͤβʳؼԡ۸ΡؼԤäĺϲĤŤ줿Ǵ˻Ŧ졢̩ġ٤ʤɤȽ줿

ַ̤򥪡ץˤơïˤǤȤ褦ʷˤǤ뤫ɤݥȤǤ礦ɤιȤѤ̤ꤹ褦ʷˤƤϤʤȻפޤפXϸä

̿ʳؤȯŸˤϴԤȤ¿Υԡɤˤ԰¤򴶤Τ¤HGP-writeΥ꡼ΰ͡ܡNatureˡֲ桹ϥĤȤƤΤǤϤʤͥؤοϤĤʤפȥȤƤ뤬ġġθդˤϤʤʤȤ򿮤

ʵȰ椤Ĥ

Υ꡼ϥ

͡sciencemagסnatureפۤ

ȸ TOCANA



ƥեؤȥߥذرθबʹ֤ΥΥ8%Ρ֥ꥢDNAפƤȯɽ

ʹ֤ΥΥ8%Ρ֥ꥢDNAפƤƹʳإǥߡǺܡ Υ륹

2016.10.29

ֲ桹Ϥɤ褿Τ 桹ϲԤ 桹ϤɤعԤΤסե󥹿Ͳȥ䤤򺣰䤤ľ褿⤷ʤʤȡΰˡ֥ꥢDNAפ¸ߤȤسθ̤𤵤ƤȤΤ

2017-02-17_074705

奨ꥢDNAȯ줿

ƳǥȤȡƥեؤȥߥذرθब椫齸줿︳2500ͤDNAĴ̡19Ρ󡽥ҥͳDNAʥꥢDNAˡפͤΥΥˤ¸ߤ뤳ȤȽ322դΡƹʳإǥߡסProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesˡ٤˷Ǻܤ줿ƤȤ

˶ä٤ȤˡĴ25002︳ԤˤϥꥢDNAδʡȥ쥷ԡɤĤƤ뤳ȤޤȽƤ뤽ΤDNAϲʤΤ

¤ϡꥢDNAΤϡHIVʥҥȱ륹ˡפɽȥ륹ΰȥ륹HERVˤȤȤʬäƤ롣ȥ륹Ȥϡȥ륹餫θǥΥ˼ޤ졢ˤ錄ƤΤʹ֤ΥΥ8ƤȤ⤤Ƥ롣

HIVʹȶ륹Τ褦ʹ뤬פκǾ˦γˤȥ륹ȯƤꡢʹ֤ʲԲķ̤Ƥ

θ̤ϡȥ륹ȿʹ֤δط˿ʻ󶡤ΤˤʤȸΥ륹ؼԥ󡦥եΡʥեءˤϸäƤ롣

֤ɤΤ褦ʷаޤǥȥ륹ȿʹ֤Ȥ˿ʲƤΤפʾ餫ˤʤޤ
ָ˵ä륹ȯŪǤ뤫⤷ޤ

2017-02-17_074824

ޤǤθǤϡȥ륹ϥʤɤµνɼ˥᡼ͿΤȤƴϢդ褦ȤƤˤϽɼοʲ¥ΤǽǯŦƤ롣ƱԤǤ륿եإ꡼ȡꥢॺΤˤȡ֤ޤƤȥ륹ĤäƤʤȤξ㳲ˤʤäƤפᡢֺ夵¿οͤоݤ˥꡼˥󥰤ɬפפȤΤȡ

ؼԤΥե꡼åΤ⺣θ˹ʤǮդ򸫤Ƥ롣

ְҤȯ˱ƶͿ¾ȥ륹Υץ¿ȯƤޤסʥåΡ ֺΥ᥽åɤѤơҤƤȥ륹õƤĤǤסƱ

Τ߷׿ޤȤ⤤٤DNAֿʹ֤餷ʤΡפǹƤȤسθ̡륹ʤɤ̿ϵ峰褷Ȥ֥ѥ󥹥ڥߥפˤʤ館Сʹ֤ϤǤϵ峰̿ΤȤΥϥ֥åɤȤȤͤ桹ϰβԤʤΤġġ

Խ

͡University of Michigan Health SystemסScience DailyסDaily Mailסۤ

ȸ TOCANA


More ancient viruses lurk in our DNA than we thought

One whole endogenous retrovirus genome -- and bits of 17 others -- were spotted in a study of 2,500 human genomes
ANN ARBOR, Mich. — Think your DNA is all human? Think again. And a new discovery suggests its even less human than scientists previously thought.

2017-02-17_075810

Nineteen new pieces of DNA -- left by viruses that first infected our ancestors hundreds of thousands of years ago -- have just been found, lurking between our own genes.

And one stretch of newfound DNA, found in about 50 of the 2,500 people studied, contains an intact, full genetic recipe for an entire virus, say the scientists who published their findings today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Whether or not it can replicate, or reproduce, it isnt yet known. But other studies of ancient virus DNA have shown it can affect the humans who carry it.

In addition to finding these new stretches, the scientists also confirmed 17 other pieces of virus DNA found in human genomes by other scientists in recent years.

The study looked at the entire span of DNA, or genome, from people from around the world, including a large number from Africa -- where the ancestors of modern humans originated before migrating around the world. The team used sophisticated techniques to compare key areas of each persons genome to the reference human genome.

Working at Tufts University and the University of Michigan Medical School, the researchers made the findings with funding from the National Institutes of Health.

HERV-enly find

2017-02-17_075913

The findings add to what science already knows about human endogenous retroviruses, or HERVs. Thats the name for the ancient infectious viruses that inserted a DNA-based copy of their own RNA genetic material into our ancestors genomes. Theyre part of the same type of virus that includes the modern human immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS.

Over generations, the virus-generated DNA kept getting copied and handed down when humans reproduced. Thats how it ended up in our DNA today. In fact, about 8 percent of what we think of as our human DNA actually came from viruses. In some cases, HERV sequences have been adopted by the human body to serve a useful purpose, such as one that helps pregnant womens bodies build a cell layer around a developing fetus to protect it from toxins in the mothers blood.

The new HERVs are part of the family called HERV-K. The intact whole viral genome, or provirus, just found was on the X chromosome; its been dubbed Xq21. Its only the second intact provirus found to be hiding in human DNA.

In the researchers own words:
This one looks like it is capable of making infectious virus, which would be very exciting if true, as it would allow us to study a viral epidemic that took place long ago, says senior author and virologist John Coffin, Ph.D. of the Tufts University School of Medicine. This research provides important information necessary for understanding how retroviruses and humans have evolved together in relatively recent times.

Many studies have tried to link these endogenous viral elements to cancer and other diseases, but a major difficulty has been that we haven't actually found all of them yet, says co-first author Zachary H. Williams, a Ph.D. student at the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts University in Boston. A lot of the most interesting elements are only found in a small percentage of people, which means you have to screen a large number of people to find them.

This is a thrilling discovery, says co-first author Julia Wildschutte, Ph.D., who began the work as a Ph.D. student in Coffins lab at Tufts. It will open up many doors to research. Whats more, we have confirmed in this paper that we can use genomic data from multiple individuals compared to the reference human genome to detect new HERVs. But this has also shown us that some people carry insertions that we cant map back to the reference.

2017-02-17_075955

U-M genetics researcher Jeffrey Kidd, Ph.D., worked with Wildschutte when she was a member of his laboratory team. These are remnants of ancient events that have not been fixed in the population as a whole, but rather happened in the ancestors of some people alive today, Kidd says. There have been a number of examples of other HERVs that insert themselves next to human genes or near them, and have impact on their expression. Were interested in applying these methods to find other types of viral or mobile element insertions.

Genetic teamwork
The Michigan team used methods for characterizing repetitive DNA sequences that Kidd and his team had developed, while Coffin and Williams used complementary techniques. Wildschutte is now at Bowling Green State University.

Many of the genomes they examined were from the 1000 Genomes Project, an international collaboration. Another set of genomes came from work Kidd and colleagues at Stanford University had done as part of the Human Genome Diversity Project, with a focus on DNA samples from African volunteers.

These latter samples showed more signs of HERVs, in line with the high level of genetic diversity in African populations. That diversity stems from the longtime stability and intermixing of the continents population – as opposed to other populations in Europe, Asia and the Americas that stem from specific out-migrations in ancient times.

Cataloging all the HERV insertions in humans will require even more scanning of whole human genomes, which are becoming easier to come by as technology improves and becomes less expensive. And although intact proviruses lurking in our DNA may be rare, the impact of other HERV sequences on our health or disease is probably not.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health (OD009154, CA089441, GM112339) as well as the American Cancer Society and the F.M. Kirby Foundation.

ȸ University of Michigan Health System

ƹNIH=ꥫΩưʪؤΥҥȴ˦Фߤ

ƹ񡢥ҥȤưʪθ۵ƹ񡢥ҥȤưʪθ۵

2016ǯ0810 22:12

2016-08-11_102602

ƹNIH=ꥫΩưʪؤΥҥȴ˦Фߤ󥹻郎󤸤

ΤڤΥ줿˦ȯãʳΤͤߤؿĤǽϡؼԤȤ԰¤ϼ¸ϡĶƬǾפĤ߽ͤиȹͤƤ뤫µθԹɤץåȥե䡢ܿΤ¡︻ˤʤǽ⤢롣
ǯؤλŪƤ뤿ߤ줿

16ǯ84NIHϡؤΥҥȴ˦Ƴ¸ϡ˦μǤδ˦Υ벽ޤ¸ɤΤ褦ưʪιưȳѤ뤫ȤװθˤǡʪưʪݸȤξǧ硢ߤѰդ

ȸ sputniknews





񸦵֥ʹ֤Ĥä

ڥֿ̤ۡʹ֤Ĥä񸦵ȯɽŪˤϣϣˡ

2015.12.16

1997ǯ2˥ӤΥɥ꡼ȯɽƤ19ǯˤʤ롣δ֤ˡ󵻽Ѥޤ͡ʥХƥΥϲ®Ū˿ʲơʹ֤Υ󤵤Ĥ뵻ѤΩƤȤ

ʹΡ֥ƥΥϴˤ

ꥫΡDiscovery NewsפΥݡȤˤСΥХƥΥȤΥܥ饤աBoyalife˼Ҥϡե󥹤APF̿Ҥˡֿʹ֤ΥĤäƤפȯɽθ浡ؤХϢȤ˾׷ͿƤ롣

ߡܥ饤ռҤŷŻԤ˵ʥХץȤǡ7˴ͽΤΥƥǤϡ2020ǯޤ100ƬεΥȤܥ饤ռҤCEOǤ륷奤㥪ˤСܤϡۤλϤޤǤʤȤΤȡͥʶϤ䡢ڥåȡǽϤι⤤ɡٻʤɤΥϡΥץȤΰǤǤ˿ʤƤ롣

2015-12-16_164248

ץȤˤϡҥХ󥯤ʻߤǴξŪʺΤ500˵ڤֺ˦ץ¸뤳Ȥǽˤײ⤢롣ޤܥ饤ռҤϡ˴ڹΥХȡSooamҤʳرȤζƱϤƤꡢµθ˻Ȥ¸ưʪΥνʤƤ롣

ϡ֥ƥΥϴˤˤꡢܥ饤ռҤͥ줿ѤĴȤϤʤפȸͤؤΥƥåץåפɬפʵѤʪŪˤϤ鷺ʤΤǡĤ줿ϥĤΤߤǤȼĥߥܥ饤ռҤʹ֤Υ󸦵򤷤ƤʤΤϡ絬ˤΤǤȤƤ롣

奤Ʊ󤲤ʤ顢ҲŪʲʹѤϻȤȤѲ뤳ȤŦŪơƤ50󤺤İѤҤɤʳˡ100Ƥ顢100ƤΰˤäޤƤҤɤβǽ򼨺ҤɤĤ褬ҤȤĤ3ĤȤȯƤ롣

̤οˤϿѥ¤!?



ܥ饤ռҤΥѡȥʡȤǤڹSooamҤϡ2005ǯES˦ʸǤȤʤäΤΡǽƸΥĤФȤե󡦥ΤΩȤǡǤ˰10ɥǡ˴ʤäڥåȤΥĤȤȤƤΤƤ롣

2015-12-16_164803

ڹ찡ˤСեΤϡڹǤϿʹ֤Ȥä¸ػߤƤơμ¸οʹԲǡʹ֤ȤȤˤʤäݤ꤬ǽ뤿ˡ줬ǽǤθʤƤȤΤȤǤ롣

ޤ奤ϡܥ饤ռҤǺǽΥΥץ饤䡼ˤʤǤȤäƤ롣ѰΰĥϡͭפʼʤǤꡢ͵Τ褦ʾʵ¤᤯̤븰ˤʤǤȤƤ롣Ǥϡ衼åѤǤϥưʪȤ뤳Ȥ϶ؤƤ뤬ꥫǤϰǤȤƤ롣ϢȵؤǤϡޤɤȤФˤϻäƤʤ

ۤ30ǯϡʹ֤ʤɤSFDz䥳ߥådz롢̤ΥХѤǤä褦ʵʤǤʤ̤εѤޤƤ뤳Ȥ˶äǤ롣奤AFP̿Ҥˡ֥󵻽Ѥϡ罰פäƤۤɶߤʳؤǤʤǤʤ˷ȤʳؼԤѿͤǤϤʤפȸäƤϤ뤬εѿʲȡȼҲʹ֤ѤƤȤΥԡɤκϳƤΤ褦ʵƤʤʤ

ʸƸƻ



͡Discovery NewsסDaily Mailפۤ

ȸ TOCANA


βʳؼԤҥȼ˰ƤǷ㤷

2015.09.19 07:00

βʳؼԤҥȼΰ֡μ¸ˤĤơƤǤϳؽѻ狼ޥǥޤǡᤰȤʤäƤ롣

سμ¸Ϻǯ4ʪءʪؤγؽѻ֥ץƥפ˷Ǻܤ줿ʸ餫ˤʤäʤˤ滳ؤβθबҥȼΡ֥ΥԽפԤäȤΤΥԽȤϲ󥹥饤ľ᤬⤹롣

֥ΥϤʪġ߷׿ޤǤʪοΤ㤨ȥΥϥ쥷Ԥˤꡢ˽񤫤줿ʪΤǤ롣ΥԽȤϡͰŪˤΥ쥷Ԥ񤭴뤳ȤʪΤѤ뵻ѤΰǤΰȤߴñǡΨι⤤ͥ줿ѤǤ

ΥԽͭϹ⤯ʪʼɤ俷γȯҼŤʤ͡ʬ˱ѤǤ롣ƹǤHIV˴ҥȤκ˦饦륹׾椬ϤޤäƤ롣

μ¸뤵줿Τϡǽƥҥȼ˥ΥԽܤƤǤϥ֡뤵԰٤Ǥꡢ㤷򴬤

ʤҥȼΥΥԽʤΤܤȱομ̤ʤɤΰŪüͰŪơ߷ספ줿֥ǥʡ٥ӡפˤĤʤ뤫ĿͤΤޤޤüǽϤθȤʤ륲Υֽ񤭴פȤǡ֥ҥȺؤפǽˤʤ롣

ʤΤϡΥԽ񤫤ޤ줿ҶΰҤʱ˼ѤˤꡢǤ狼äƤʤѤʤɤ˵ڤ֥ꥹ롣

֥ΥԽѤѤСܤομǤʤưǽϤγʡIQǽؿˤפ̤Ǥ褦ˤʤޤSFΤ褦ʡȶʹ֡ɤ⵻ŪˤϲǽǤɤޤǿʹ֤Υ쥷Ԥ񤭴ƤΤ⤽񤭴ƤΤȤɶɤεŪ˿ʤǤޤۣʾ֤Τޤʸȯɽ졢ʳس礭ʾ׷⤬ޤסĻ

θۻĹǽϤΤʤȤäƤꡢʳŪŪϥꥢȼĥ뤬θ椬֥ҥȺؤפκǽΰȤʤꤦ뤳Ȥϴְ㤤ʤƤβʳؼԤΡ˽פ˷㤷ȿȯå󥿥ӥ塼Ԥäѡ֥ͥ㡼׻ΥǡӥåɡΥԤ

ֲϤȤƤ⥪ץǰջ̤ΤǤ븦ԤǤƤο͡Ϥμ¸򹥰Ū˸ƤʤȿɤϾŪŪǥΥԽԤ뤳Ȥ˴Ƥޤ

SAPIO2015ǯ10

ȸ NEWSݥȥ֥

ھ׷ۥץƥꥢϵͤΥϥ֥åɡʥϡաˤλҤɤл

ץƥꥢȿʹ֤ΥϡդλҶǥл

Хʤ󤬻ȤȤ̿Τإ롢פΥե줵

2015-06-22_022435

ޤƤ˻ǤޤäȤ̿ΡλѤϳΤ˿ʹ֤ȤϰäƸ롣Ĺ18ǥ2Ĺˡʹ֤ǤФޤĹΤ5ϤȤä2ǤޤĹ̿Ρ

2015-06-22_022325

褦ˡͤλҶʤΤ

2015-06-22_022602

2015-06-22_022518

UFO͸ȡ ɡ֤ϤääƤǤ衣ͤϤ⤦ְ㤤ʤȻפޤ͡ޤץƥꥢϵͤΥϥ֥åɡʥϡաˤȤˤʤȻפޤ͡

2015-06-22_104119

UFO͸ȡ ɡͤϽƸޤ͡ޤǥץȻʤΤϸǤ衣ºݤ˽л˴ؤƤää餷Ȥ̣ѵŤʱȻפޤ

2015-06-22_022652

Хʤ֤ʤ䤬ͤФƤޤäΤʬޤ󡣤ݤפϤ⤦ޤ󡣡

פΥե줵˰̴Τ褦2Ǥ

2015-06-22_022743


˥ХʤϤλͤˤäơΥޥåפޤ줿Ȥ

2015-06-22_022812

ǾܤȤʬˤꡢѤǼФΤϺȿǤ줿

2015-06-22_022843

Хʤ֤Υޥåפǡ̤˱ͤ˴ƻ뤵ƤΤ⤷ޤ󡣺԰¤äʤΤǤ

2015-06-22_105230

ͤλҤɤȤлȤХʤ󡣺Ⱨͤα˶餷Ƥ롣

ºݤα




෿ࡢץƥꥢ(ҥȥ꡼ͥý)

ۤץƥꥢ෿˸ߤϿȤΥϡդ¿ȸƤ롣ץեȤͭ̾ͭ͡ϼԤˤȤäѤäƤ⤢

2015-06-22_110354

2015-06-22_110926

ԥƥꥢȱŪͭ̾

ͥåȤǤϸƤϤʤɡʸաˡץƥꥢ - MAGICAˡ祫Хȴˡ

2015-06-22_110853

ӥ󥻎󥸥꡼ʥ꡼
ߡޤ⥢ǥߡޤ⥤

2015-06-22_111102

2015-06-22_111143

ξǥ˥ȥݡ
2015-06-22_111008

2015-06-22_111230

2015-06-22_111206

αDzϥץƥꥢˤʪäΤ

137717624734213120825_avatar1

2015-06-22_111301

2015-06-22_111327

줿ܤΣģΣ

ǣġ餤Ƥߤ褦Ȼפޤ ˽Ҥ٤α͡ǡӥåȡ󾧤֥ץƥꥢסꥢå󾧤֥̥ʥפʤǤξͤδطϤäɤ狼ޤ ǡӥåɡǤϡ ֥̥ʥס֥ץƥꥢ ȤʤäƤޤ ϥꥢåˤꤵƤߤǤ


礤ʤ̩ʾ˥ץƥꥢ

ǡåɡҡǯ

ٹ

ܽΤʤˤϡ̤ξQϤޤ˳ݤΥ줿̤˼Ƥ롣

顢ʤޤǤ¸ξQΤΩȤȤΤʤ顢ܤɤΤƤäƤ⤤ޤΤθ¤ľ뤹뤳ȤѤʤפȸͤ⡢ܤĤƤäƤ⤤äˤޤʤ

⤷⤢ʤܤɤळȤ򤷤Τʤ顢ɤΤȤФƤƤ̿ϱʱ³ƽ뤳Ȥʤ٤Ƥλݤϡָ̿פؤȸӾǤηиʤΤΥ뤫鸫ʤСˤⰭ¸ߤʤˤäƷиѤ߽ŤͤƤ椯ռΤߤ¸ߤƤ롣ܤ餫ˤζä٤ǤȤϡָͳפؤȸץΰʤΤ

ɤŤƤǯΡ礤ʤռѳפλפŤƤ뤳Ȥ򡣤ơ줫餢ʤΤ뤳Ȥˤʤ¿οʾˤ⤫餺ۤΤˤФ餷ϤʤȤ

ǡåɡ

img_0

ǦӴ붲ݤ ֥ե饶եåɡפȤϲ

Ϻä٤ȤˡबޤθȤΤʤˤƤޤȡŪѳסľλɤƤΤơϵ̤˰Ϲˤ뤫ɤϡηǰĤˤäƤ롣פСδƹפˡǯΤĤ³Ƥη迴ǤϴΥɥˤäơͳʳӽФȤǤΤޤӽФȤ򤷤ʤСϥʤĶĹŪϵര۷ײȤĶάδƤޤȤˤʤ

ʤС䤬ϵΤ٤ƤˤҶϡɶΥ󡦥ܡ󡦥ɷԡ󡦥̲ߡ߼ΥޥåפˤäơŪŪˡޤŪŪˡ첽Ƥޤ

ʤꤳʤȤΤ餵ơȤޤɤäƤɼԤ⤪褦ɡ˻θäƤ뤳ȤϹ̵Τ¤Ȥʹ뤫⤷ʤȤǤʤȤˤʤ¯ʥƥӤ䥲ࡦ硼Ф긫Τƿ˿¤򸫤褦Ȥʤ顢䤬ƤΤȤ¤Ǥ뤳Ȥ¨¤Ǥ褦ˤʤ

䡢Ϥʤˤݵˡ֤줫˲ؤʤȤפʤɤȸäƤΤǤϤʤϤǤ˺ޤ˸߿ʹθ¤ΤΤʤΤкѡͻǥν沽Υڡ夲ĤĿʹԤХ롦ȥϤޤޤ򶯤Ƥ롣͡ؤΥޥåפߤ⤹Ǥ˷Ѥߤǡ礤ʤ׹ʡֿײפϸߤ⤵ޤޤʷ֤ǿʹǤ롣

Ĺ̲˱Ƥ»ܤ褦ȤȤϾˡײ¸ΤκǸΰ첡Ȥǡɽ̤˵夷ƤΤ򸽺ߡϡֶԤȤŪפεݤ䡢ţաʲϢˤϢ̤ƤΡкѤε®ʰ˽沽פȤƤỴܤˤƤǤϤʤףԣϡǰ׵ˤͣɡ¿ǰ׶ˡԤɣͣơʹ̲ߴˡǣǣŵŪݼǾ̡ġĤޤƱͤˡ®άŪ˽沽ΤȤʤäƤ롣

¤ϤѤ硹Ūʰ˽沽΢ˤϡˤεġðۤʷήΰ²פϤƯƤΤΡðۤʷΰ²פϡƱήͭ²֤Ǥη뺧Ťͤ뤳ȤˤäƼηΡֽפݤ³Ƥϥ衼åѤβ²ʺ׳ȤˤˤλѤ򸽤路פ̤ˤϤ礷

ϡѹ濴Ȥ벤󶯤ΤγϰˡηήκǤΤꥫ罰Ǥ롣ι罰ΤΤʤȣ̾⤬󥰥ɤΥեå粦ե󥹤Υޡ˥ΰҤѤǤΤ̤ʷήμԤˤ륢ϡäۤĹǯ򤫤塹ȸ²Ƥƺ䡢ʽŪХ롦ȥ뤬ǽȤʤʳˤޤãΤ

줬᤯ܤФޤʤСĤƤΥʥɥĤΤ褦ʷɤ줿ƹҲ񤬡ϵŪϤǼ¸뤳Ȥˤʤ줬䤬֥֥饶եåɡפȸƤĶάѰդ̤ʤΤǤ롣Ρ֥֥饶եåɡפȤۤɽҤ٤̤ʷήμԤˤäƷ롢³Ķ̩ҥͥåȥΤȤǤ롣ޤ֥פȤϡ֤ˤĶĹŪϵര۷ײΥॹ塼ΤȤܽǤϤζðŪʸ¤˽ϪƤ椯Ȥˤ롣

ðۤʷήΰ²פˤʹҾײϣǯ˴롪

ǯ飲ǯϡΥκǽʳȤƤ롣ơäˣǯŪǯȤʤͳˤĤƤϤΤۤɤ褦

ǰʤȤ¿ο͡ϡʬΤǤ뿼ʥοޤä򤷤ƤʤλҶˤɤĤȤƤΤޤä狼äƤʤʬο͡ϡʤȤϤޤäˤƤʤ褦Ū˿͡ϡ̵ռŪˡʤ뤤ϤռŪˡ˿¤ľ̤ΤäƤꡢ餽μܤɡʤդˤǤޤäƤΤǤ롣

ʤϡγӽФƬεˤʤä褦ʵƤʤʤϺ򿩤Ǥ֤˸äƤǤΤ

֤ߤʹƤ졣ȥåäƤϡΤĤ֤򲿿ͤϢƹԤϤߤʤפäƤ褦ˡ֤̤ҾϢƹԤäƤƤ󤸤ʤ¤ϢƹԤ줿֤ϡƬȴƻƤƷȴڤޤơѥå˵ͤƤʹ֤Ϥ㤤ƿ٤Ƥ衪פȡ

Ҿ֤ȿƤϼʤϡ褯ͤƤߤ衣ʹ֤ʤȤϤʤ˲ϥȥå͢ҤγäƤơʤˤäƤ櫓Τ狼ʤȤä򵯤ΤϤƤ졪סޤʤȤ

ơ줫餽μΤ餫ˤ褦ȤƤΥϲǯλ򤫤ƽ˸²ƤΤǤ롣⡢ߤϴֶȤʤäƤ롣बǤ̵³Ƥᡢ֤򤳤ޤǵƤޤäΤ

ϡñˤΤ¸ȹͤƹưʾˡ餬ȻפȤԤʤ٤̵ΤʤԤϹʤפȤ뤬줬ƤϤޤΤۤξΤΤȤ

ȤεŤƤΤΤʤǤ뤳ȤϡˤäƤϹʤȤ⤷ʤϡֲǤʤƤϡפȿۤɬפʤƬ򺽤ͤùǼܤɤǤߤȤǡεܶᤷƤȤ¤Ѥʤ

ͦФܤ򳫤¤ľ뤹ʤСҳ򤱤ˡ⸫Ĥ뤫⤷ʤޤǤ⸽¤ǧ̵ΤΤޤޤǤʤСϾ˺ǰη̤򾷤Ȥˤʤϸ¤鶯԰Ǥ餦Ȥˤʤ뤫̵ΤʤԤϹʤꡣۤξΤšŤϡ

¤Ȥϡλ׹ͤȹ԰٤η̰ʳβΤǤʤʲ⤷ʤȤΡֹ԰١פǤˡ⤷줬ǤȤʤСϼ̿ꤲΤƤ顢⤷ʬʤȤ򤹤ʤСꤲΤƤΤƱȤ̣롣

ϤޤޤǤˤ̤ƿΤԤʤäƤȤ˾μԤ罰ۤ³Ƥ줿ͳϤˤ롣϶ͻӥͥߥ˥ΥХꥼ̤ơٰʾμԤˤäƴ˻ۤƤΤ¤Ǥ롣

ȤϤΤˤ罰ۤΥ᥽åɤϾƱǤäʤ罰̵Τξ֤ݤơ͡ߤ褤碌ζݤ߽Фʬ䤷ƻۤ衣ǿ˽פμꤷƿפǤ롣

Υ᥽åɤˤäƲǯΤ򥳥ȥ뤷³ƤΤϡĹʥʤԤäϡƱϸۤ򷫤֤Ƥðۤʷήΰ²פΥСǤ롣ΥϸߡĤƤʤäλޤƤ롣ȤΤϡ餬˾ϵŪեȹȡʹҾˡ׽иλäƤ뤫ʤΤ

פ˥ޥɥȥ뤵Ƥ륽Ū

ΡϵŪեȹȡʹҾˡפɬ¸Ȥϸ¤ʤȤΤ⡢Ϥ龯μԤ¦ˤǤϤʤŪ¿Τˤ뤫ŪʤȤʤ顢ͤҤȤΤʤˤ̵¤Ϥ̲äƤΤǤ롣줬˥ȥ뤵³ƤΤϡα̿ڤϤʤǤϤʤơ줬οΰְ֤ˤƤϤƤޤäƤ뤫ʤΤ

ɤʤȤȡϾ¾ïΤȹͤƤޤDz꤬ȯȡϤĤȿŪˤäƤ롣Ϥäɤн褹Ĥʤפȡ¤ϤΡפȤΤʤȰտŪˤΡפФĥܿͤʤΤơʤȤȸ罰Ρȿפ˱ơäѰդƤֲ׺»ܤΤǤ롣ˤäơͳؤοȸϤν沽˿ʤΤ

ٻݰ¶ɤ䷳Ϥ򶯲Ȥϡƥʤɤ˽Ⱥȯơ͡Τۤ鼣¤ζƤ褦˻ŸФ褤ˡȤŪãīάåƥƥζݤ˼ᤫ줿͡ϡοȤΰȰʤСäȼͳϤƤޤ

伫ȤϤΤ褦ʼˡ򡢡꡽ȿάȸƤ֤ȤˤƤ롣ä褦ޤǽˡפФơ֤ʤȤƤפȤ͡ΡȿפФˡֲ׺󼨤Ƥߤ¹ԤΤǤ롣ϥե꡼᡼Υåȡֺ̤ƤפȤ˽󤵤ˡǤ롣֤߽ФǡμΩƤ󼨤Τ󤽤ȤϡʤˤȤäƤΡפʤΤǤ롣

罰ϡޤޤʷ֤δŪŪȥ̤ơܤηΤ褦ư롣ʿοۤ͡ˤϡ줷ˡʤϤǤ롣

ʤоμԤ¾βο͡ʪŪ˥ȥ뤹뤳ȤԲǽʤΤҾξפ⤫٤Ƥ¿βܤʪŪ˥ȥ뤹ΤϡʤοͼѰդʤԲǽ

ο͡ʪŪ˥ȥ뤹뤳ȡפϤȤƤԲǽŪ˥ȥ뤹뤳ȤԲǽʤȤǤϤʤ⤷ο͡ιͤ˽ʬʱƶͿ뤳ȤǤʤСʬ͡ˤ餻褦ȤƤ뤳Ȥ򡢿͡ȤΡַǡפˤäƹԤʤ碌뤳ȤǽˤʤΤ餬ƳˡƤ򡢿͡Τۤ׵ᤷƤ褦ˤ뤳Ȥ⡢ǽǤ롣

ֿͤ˲餻ʤС줬οͼȤιͤȤοͼȤ˻פ碌ƤȤפȤϡŤʸΰĤǤ˿ϡפˤäƴ˥ޥɥȥ뤵Ƥ롣ӤޤȤ٤ˤʤϸȻפͤ⤤

¤ϤǤϤʤֿ͡λ׹ͤ뤳Ȥˤäơ͡ʬȤȽǤΤ褦ʷǡԤΰտޤ¨ưȤ餻ƤޤסȤΤθޥɥȥ

Τ褦ʴߤʤС֤ɤ줯餤οο͡ޥɥȥ뤵ƤΤפȹͤ⡢֥ޥɥȥ뤵Ƥʤ褦ʴäʿͤ⡢¿ϤΤפȹͤۤŬڤʤ餤٤κ졢٤Ƥο͡ޥɥȥƤȸäƤ褤Ǥ

ȤФʤ٤餵ơɬפǤϤʤäʪäƤޤäȤСΥޥɥȥǤ롣ޤʤ̯Ķʤ줿ʹƥӤΥ˥塼̵Ƚ˼ƤޤäƤʤ顢ʤϳμ¤˥ޥɥȥ뤵Ƥ櫓ηƤߤȤ狼䤹⤷ʤ

Ͻʥޥɥȥä顢־崱̿ˤפȤʤ롣⤷崱Τ餺οַ͡ơפ᤹̿ʤСʤϤäθʤˡˤο͡⤷ʤФʤʤϡ֡ԥե󥿥ƥפȸƤǤ롣

Τ褦ʥ󥿥ƥŪˤϡγˤ̢䤷ƤΤǤ롣ʥդӸäƤʤ֤褯ʤäƤȤϤ狼äƤ衣ǤܥäƸʤפȡ

ʤäơʤʤƤȤФˤʤϾ˼ΰջ֤ˤäơ򤷤褤򤹤뤳ȤǤ¸ߤ;ϤʤʤƤȤϤꤨʤʤʤɤȸΤϡñʤ櫓ˤʤΤ

ϡֿpeopleפ뤫ֲܿsheepleפ뤫

ޥɥȥΥƥ˥å̵¸ߤƤ롣ϡְ㤤ʤʤäƤ롣ʤʤ餢ʤ뤳ȤǤСϤʤΤ٤Ƥ줿Ʊ٤ƤΤȤϡ줬᤹ȤǤ뤫ɤˤäƤ롣

Ϥǹͤޤ¾ͤȼιͤĤȤ˴ƤǤ뤳ȤƼʬȤ֤ߤʤȰäƤפ񤵤줿޾Ф줿ꤹ뤳Ȥ򶲤ƤϤʤʤޤդˡ̤ȤϰäͤĿͤܤǸơοͤο̤褦ʤȤ褷ƤƤϤʤʤƤ줬Ϥǹͤƹư褦ˤʤʤ¤ꡢϸ¤˴Ƥޤ

⤷줬μ᤹ʤСϤ¸ߤδפ졢뤳ȤˤʤϤޤǣʾäƹֱ並ĴԤʤäƤη̤ȤơΤɤιˤ⡢Х롦˱äƱλ۹¤ߤ줿

ޤƱˡŪγäϤäȴ뤳ȤǤΤǤäߤޤޤ¿ο͡ŪܳФޤפβʹ褦ˤʤäƤƤꡢϵŪ̲꤫ܳФĤĤ롣ʥߥ˥ࣲǯؤȻŪ˽ʻμƳ򰮤ΤʤΤȤʤΤ

Ϥ줷¤ȤϡޤǤǰ԰٤η̤Ȥ߽ФΤǤ롣⤷줬λפȤιԤʤ򿷤ˤʤСѤ뤳ȤˤʤޤäñʤȤʤΤ

Ϥ줫ܽˤơۤƤ²ƱϸۤŤ³Ƥüʷήΰ²Ǥˤˤ򡢤ΥХ롦Τ餫ˤƤȻפ

䤬줫餫ˤƤϡ뱢ŤƱΥˤΤǤϤʤšʥ󥹥ԥ饷ˤȤΤϡʤΤʬŪʹǤȤǤ٤ΤǤ롣ˤϡ礭äƣĤη֤롣

ޤĤϡʤμˤʤʹ֤ȿȤˡʤȤХްŻˡ ĤϡʤʪϤκ¤ˤĤƤȡʥ硼֥å塢إ꡼å󥸥㡼ȥˡ֥쥢ʤɤˡ

ƣĤϡƥƥкȤˤäơ͡Τۤ饢˱ä׵򤷤Ƥ褦˻Ÿ뤳ȡʤ꡽ȿά

ʾΤ褦ʤ̤ơ츫ФФΤ褦˻פ뤵ޤޤʻϡƱαšƱΥιǤȤʤäƤ롣ʤʹƥӤǸʹ⳦λƳԤθϡ罰򥳥ȥ뤹ȤŪΤˡ̡ƹ줿ΤǤ롣ܤΤͤϤǤˤ狼äƤ

βɤǤС¸줿Ȥ¤ˤʤäƤȤ׷λ¤Τ¸ǤϤʤŤΤꤢ餫ƤʤΤᤤŪեȹȤ¸ƤޤȤ򤱤ʤΤ

ϡΤ褦䤤ФƤ줬ɤưˤäƤ롣ĤޤꡢԤϿ(people)ˤʤΤȤܿ(sheeple)ΤޤޤǤΤդ

Υݤθ򰮤äƤΤϡ켫ȤʤΤ

˥說說줿ϡ礤ʤ̩ʲˡĶ

ȸ 礤ʤ̩ʾ˥ץƥꥢ


ʪΥץƥꥢ̿

dorakoniann



2015-06-22_112624

2015-06-22_112655


ץƥꥢȤώ෿

ץƥꥢ󡦥ߥʥƥȥȡϡҤܤǤ󤫤ѥϰ̤丢ϡˤ餦ˡWitchcraft(Ž)Ԥޤ줬ҶΰؤӤǤΤˡʬλҶͶƤҶƶؤޤ

ץƥꥢ󡦥ߥʥƥȥȡϡҶˤˤۤɡ󤫤ѥ館ȿƤ뤫ʤΤǤȡϡϥꥦåɱDz軺ȤäƤꡢǯ֡ï⥵ȡȴDZDzäƤޤ

⵷ǻҶˡλҶܤ򤨤ꡢ˥ȤˡܤƬ䱢ʤɤ˼ѤǥץȤ뤳Ȥ⤢ޤβǤ

Ÿ إɥ饴˥ץƥꥢ󡡤줬Ե۷ȿ͡դĶ֤١⻳Ĺ˼ʥҥɡ

2015-06-22_112802

ʹ֤򻦤ɬפΤʤͤǤϡ¾ΰͤˤäưܤΤɤФƾü礬Τǡ¿ξץƥꥢѿȤӤޤϥ֥åɤͤơʪѿȤΤǤ

ΥץƥꥢʿѼ̿󣲣ФǤʹ֤ѿȤ餬ʹ֤ʿѼ̿ǻ̤ΤϡǤʤѿȤФ붲줬뤫Ǥ

ʹ֤ס졢νΤȤ٤ȯãҹؤεѤȤäƿʹ֤ϷҤȤ߹߽򤹤뤫û̿ǻ˴ޤǯ˺ޤ

ƻˤϡοͤѿȤۤκΤ¿餷Ƥޤ

Ÿ 񤤤Ȥʤ˺㤦ɽϿ


ץƥꥢȤώȥʹ ⤷϶εʹ֤Ǥ

2015-06-22_112922

2015-06-22_112941


ץƥꥢΥץե ѿ

2015-06-22_113052

2015-06-22_113030

2015-06-22_113107


ץƥꥢȤϿ

IRUMINATI2

2015-06-22_113139

2015-06-22_113216

2015-06-22_113156


ץƥꥢˤϸŤ

ꥶ٥1ξ ϼؤĤƤ

2015-06-22_113511

2015-06-22_113552

2015-06-22_113346

2015-06-22_113625

2015-06-22_113449

2015-06-22_113426

2015-06-22_113324


ץƥꥢϥꥢʤΤ

2015-06-22_113714

2015-06-22_113741

ǾȻ—ϵȿϤɤΤ褦ˤƥץƥꥢ²˥ϥå줿Τ/Dz襢Х ۤȤФ/֥֥

ۤȤФǾȻ—ϵȿϤɤΤ褦ˤƥץƥꥢ²˥ϥå줿Τ/Dz襢Х˴ؤܺٵPowered by BIGLOBE֥֥˥ǡåɡ ˥塼쥿2010ǯ124楢٥٤ϵʪȴ

ץƥꥢȸܻˡÿҤλȤߡõƻλϤޤ

ҤλȤߡõƻ λϤޤ ü ˤ륢󥷥 ʶϷϤΥå奤饨̱²εԡᴤȬȨҤλȤߡݡ륷եȡХѡȬȨμΩ˸ơ󥷥󤹤뤿αˡ§ ݥ󥵡 -------- 嵭ιϣʾ幹Τʤ֥ɽƤޤ 񤯻ǹ𤬾äޤ

ΰͿסȬϼˤǸĤä֥ץƥꥢڶ

reptirian

ߤ夬äܤȡڤȡܻؤץƥꥢħɽƤ롣

ðۤʷήΰ²: zeraniumΥ֥

ΤäȤ䡩 ε


ץƥꥢαŤȿ

UMAۿˡ ϵۤ ֥ץƥꥢפζ٤š : ꡼㡼

ˡ ϵۤ ֥ץƥꥢפζ٤š

αƤλۼԡͥץƥꥢ

2015-06-22_114540

ο¤λѤơ ץƥꥢ

ꥢå󤬲ֿα줿ε


ץƥꥢư

ΥꥫΤTVȤǤޤإץƥꥢ٤ȤդȤȤϻפ-ʤäȥץƥꥢζǾ



ϵؤäƤꥢ󤿤



ˤʥƥʤΥץƥꥢ




ץƥꥢʪStory of Reptilians




ХΤαٸܥǥɤꥢȸФƤ롣ξ-β̾οʹ֤㤹Τ




ӥ󥻤δݤ夬ܤѤֱִϥץƥꥢäΤ

Reptilian Shapeshifters among us. Turns out David Icke was right about reptilians and the saturn moon matrix. He forgot to show you the earth is a flat plane. A Plane-t. The "t" is the unfolded cube. The 2D matrix is in your face. Everyone you know is retarded and can't pick out simple shapes/ symbols of Satan marked on all thighs in your life but you have no eyes to see them. Get to my channel immediately and catch up on reality that evades your detection.

A Real Reptilian Shapeshifter - Close Up




ҥȷ

ҥȷʥҥȤϤ夦뤤Reptilian humanoidsˤȤϡáեˡSFӸα˻դΤҤȤĤǤ롣ҥȷϵǥҥȤ¹Ԥƿʲ¸ߤǤȤ뤬¾ˤϵ峰̿ETˤĶŪ¸ߤ뤤ĶʸʿиʸˤĤʤ͡⤢롣ҥȷϡʸ̮˱̾͡ΤͿƤ롣͡ԡץSnakepeopleˡץȥɡReptoidsˡǥΥɡDinosauroidsˡꥶɥեLizardfolkˡꥶɥޥLizardmenˡChitauriˤϡΰǤ롣

ҥȷ - Wikipedia

ȸ NAVERޤȤ

ʪؼԥƥ󡦥ۡΡ100ǯ˥ܥåȤǽʹ֤ʸ򽪤餻ǽ

100ǯ˥ܥåȤʹ֤ʸ򽪤餻ǽʥƥ󡦥ۡ󥰡

2015ǯ528
 
bb4a79e5

100ǯ˥ܥåȤǽʹ֤ʸ򽪤餻ǽסʪؼԥƥ󡦥ۡΤǰɽ512˥ɥdzŤ줿ĥȥ2015Ǥʤ줿ȯ
ΩĤ1ۡΤϵȲȤΥ󡦥ޥȶƱǸʤ˽̾͹ǽδˤĤƷǰɽξԤϡޤʤޤޥԥ塼ȯŸȤ˿ʹ֤Ϳƶؤ԰¤顢ƥΥɬʤƤ롣

֥ܥåȤΥԥ塼AI뤳Ȥ100ǯ˿ο魯Ǥ礦ΤȤ䤿ϡȤƤǤܥåȤŪ桹Ū˱碌ƤɬפޤסȥۡΡ

ե֥å䥰ϤȤ볫ȯԤϡ߿͹ǽ夵뿷ƥ˼ݤäƤ롣ꥳХ졼Ǥ150ҰʾδȤSiri伫ưž֤ʤɤΥ쥯ȥ˥˺ѤƤ뿷ѤȯۡΤޥϡȯξ˰ŤƤȤΤǤϤʤȷǰ롣

32cbd2d0

4ϡСɡȥҥ塼ޥ󡦥饤ġåˤȯɽ졢ΧʼγȯѤػߤˡŪϤݹդɬʤ2014ǯ12ˤϡ͹ǽγȯǤȥۡΤͽ¬Ƥ롣
åݥȼҤȯΤϡǺǤܤܥåȡפƱҤƤ͹ǽ1ΥƥϡԤܵҤʢΩƤƤ븶ؤ֤߷פƤ롣åդΡإեǡ٥꡼о줷ʹ֤ι԰٤ͽ¬ץ饤ࡦ쥤ǥȤȤAIˤʤߡ쥤ǥȤ̿̾줿
 
175b7de4

ۡΤϡ͹ǽѤʹ֤館ʤۤ᤯ȯŸ뤳ȤɤˡAIȯԤĴ뤳ȤƤƤ롣

Dzإߥ͡٤Τ褦ʥܥåȤˤ˴ϵꤦ롣ۡΤθǤϡƥΥʹ֤δαΩƤ򲿤ǤʤСʥꥪϺ10ǯɽ̲Ȥ

47412fb7

SFʤ¿ϡʹ֤ǽäԥ塼ơޤˤƤ롣͹ǽϤǤǹΥץ졼䡼Ǥ餫ȤǤ롣ޤˤϥͥؤȯAI饦ǥݡΥƥۡǥǿʹ֤򤢤ȰΤȤޤɤͤ᤿

ֻ䤿̤ˤϡƥΥȯŸϤȤѤʹ֤ηäȤζ褬ԤäƤǤ礦פȥۡΤϸä

via:.techtimesʸhiroching

ȸ ѥ

ʪؼԥƥ󡦥ۡ΢
CF_bqhFUgAEU4dL


ץ2010ǾҲ𤵤Ƥ֥ȥFפưͻҡ

ȤƤܥåȤȤϻפʤɽ𡣤ޤǥꥢȡषԵ̣ʴ







ꥢΰդײ衢󤫤鲼㤷ԤƬڤΥǾȽꤵ줿¾ͤΤ˰ܿ

ʹ֤Ƭܿǯˤ»ܡꥢΰդײ

2015.04.06 Mon posted at 12:41 JST

doctor-gloves

ʣãΣΡ 󤫤鲼ޤҤԤƬڤΥǾȽꤵ줿¾ͤΤ˰ܿ롽ꥢΰդʣӣƤΤ褦ʰܿѤιۤƤ롣ƹǣ˳زǹֱ餷ƶϼԤͤ

ꥢΥ른ʥ١դƤƤΤϡƬ̤οΤդؤ֣ȣţ֣ţΡʣȣ䡡󡡣֣ˡפȸƤФѡޤۤ٤¿롣

ͽΰϳݺѤߤǡĤϰ̤л륯饦ɥեǥ󥰤ҤǤޤʤͽȤ

ܤȤʤδԤϣФΥǡɥ˥åҡۥեޥ¤Ȥ¤鷺äƤꡢʬѤ˾ƤȤʥ١դϥ󥿡ͥåȤ𤷤ƤäǤޤäȤϤʤƤʤɤ⸫Ƥʤ

ʥ١դϡۤˤѤ˾봵ԤΥ᡼椬̤ϤƤäΤߤ˾ȥ󥹥奢οͤ¿뤬ܤμѤ϶ڰ̾ɤδԤоݤˤƱդ϶Ĵ

⤦Ĥ礭ɤϥѡȥʡõۤɤμѤϥʥ١ñȤǤϤǤä絬ϤʰŻߤζϤԲķ硣ƹdzʳزǯǷײƶϼԤõȤȤˡƬܿѤμ»ܤˤĤƣǯޤǤ˾ǧͤ

⤷ƹǶϤʤСܻؤո

¸ΤɤΩƤдǸդȰգͤΥȿͽǡäȤФ¿󤻤ƤȤѤˤ֤ϣ֤򸫹ࡣ

βǽˤĤƤϡǯƥ󡦥ꥶذعǹԤ줿ƬܿѤ礤˽ФƤ롣ϼѤ飸˵ȿΤƬΤԿܹǤʤäΤưȤϤǤϸƵۤǤʤäǯ˥룶ɤƬ̤ܿμ¸Ǥ⡢ӤϤʤäȤ

Ǥ⥫ʥ١դϡŤʳؤοˤäƤϹǤȼĥ롣ǯˤϥ󥿡ͥåȤΰػʸȯɽԿǤ̤ΤˤĤʤؤ뵻ѤʤɤˤĤƲ⤷

ФǾʳز񼡴ĹΥϥȡХդϡɤܹǤƤԿĤʤȤϤǤԤưȤƵۤ뤳ȤǤʤȻŦ֤μ¸˾ޤʤʬˤФˤʤ̤ⰭȤˤʤפȸڤä

˥塼衼ؤΥץդ⡢ʥ١դȯɽˤϲʳŪʺ򤬤ʤȽҤ١ϼˤʤȰ콳Ƥ롣

ȸ CNN.CO.JP


HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI)

Correspondence Address:
Sergio Canavero
Turin Advanced Neuromodulation Group, Turin, Italy

DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.113444

Copyright: c 2013 Canavero S This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
How to cite this article: Canavero S. HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI). Surg Neurol Int 13-Jun-2013;4:

How to cite this URL: Canavero S. HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI). Surg Neurol Int 13-Jun-2013;4:. Available from:

In 1970, the first cephalosomatic linkage was achieved in the monkey. However, the technology did not exist for reconnecting the spinal cord, and this line of research was no longer pursued. In this paper, an outline for the first total cephalic exchange in man is provided and spinal reconnection is described. The use of fusogens, special membrane-fusion substances, is discussed in view of the first human cord linkage. Several human diseases without cure might benefit from the procedure.

Keywords: Fusogens, head transplantation, spinal cord reconstruction

In 1970, Robert White and his colleagues successfully transplanted the head of a rhesus monkey on the body of another one, whose head had simultaneously been removed. The monkey lived 8 days and was, by all measures, normal, having suffered no complications.[ 28 ] A few years later, he wrote: ȡWhat has been accomplished in the animal model – prolonged hypothermic preservation and cephalic transplantation, is fully accomplishable in the human sphere. Whether such dramatic procedures will ever be justified in the human area must wait not only upon the continued advance of medical science but more appropriately the moral and social justification of such procedural undertakings.[ 29 ] In 1999, he predicted that ȡwhat has always been the stuff of science fiction - the Frankenstein legend, in which an entire human being is constructed by sewing various body parts together – will become a clinical reality early in the 21st century brain transplantation, at least initially, will really be head transplantation – or body transplantation, depending on your perspective with the significant improvements in surgical techniques and postoperative management since then, it is now possible to consider adapting the head-transplant technique to humans.[ 30 ]

The greatest technical hurdle to such endeavor is of course the reconnection of the donor (D)'s and recipient (R)'s spinal cords. It is my contention that the technology only now exists for such linkage. This paper sketches out a possible human scenario and outlines the technology to reconnect the severed cord (project GEMINI). It is argued that several up to now hopeless medical conditions might benefit from such procedure.

HYPOTHERMIA PROTOCOL
The only way to perform a cephalic exchange in man is to cool the body-recipient (R)'s head to such a low temperature to allow the surgeons to disconnect and reconnect it to the donor (D)'s body, whose head has been removed in the same operating theater by a second surgical team. Once R's head has been detached, it must be joined to D's body, that is, it must be reconnected to the circulatory flow of D, within the hour.[ 29 30 31 ] Mammals can be sustained without blood flow for 1 hour at most when cooled to the accepted safe lower limit of 12-15C: At a temperature of 15C, the cerebral metabolic rate in man is 10% of normal. Recovery following circulatory arrest for as long as 1 hour has been reported at <20C temperatures since the 1950s.[ 13 15 ] Profound hypothermia (PH) curtails the onset of global ischemia and give time to the surgeons to reconnect the bodies.

Clinical experience in cardiac surgery has demonstrated that total circulatory arrest under deep hypothermia (18C) for 45 minutes produces virtually no discernible neurological damage, with a slight increase on approaching the hour.[ 16 34 ] Experience with surgical clipping of aneurysms shows the safety of the procedure.[ 22 ]

R's blood subjected to PH tends to become coagulopathic: Accordingly, R's head will be exsanguinated before linkage, and flushed with iced (4C) Ringer's lactate.[ 2 13 ]

Hypothermia can be achieved in several ways,[ 2 ] but, in this particular endeavor, it will not involve total body extracorporeal circulation (TBEC), in order to avoid the attendant ill effects (brain damage and coagulopathy), and make the procedure as simple and as cheap as possible.

White developed a special form of PH, which he named autocerebral hypothermic perfusion (ACHP).[ 32 ] No pumps or oxygenators are called for [ Figure 1 ]. The first patient submitted to this protocol was operated on in November 1968 for removal of a brain lesion. Here follows a short description.

Figure 1
Drawing depicting White's autocerebral hypothermic perfusion in place (from White 1978)

SNI-4-335-g001

After induction of anesthesia and intubation, and insertion of a cerebral 21G thermistor into the right parietal lobe and appropriate exposure, the common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed. The two vertebral arteries were uncovered on each side of the neck as they coursed toward their body canals just caudal to the C6 body. Silk ligatures were passed around each individual artery and threaded through a short glass tube with a narrow opening and capped with a rubber tip for temporary nontraumatic occlusion. Following total body heparizination, the left femoral (F) artery and both common carotid (C) arteries were cannulated with small slightly curved metal cannulas (single carotid cannulation had been found to be unsafe in that it did not afford homogeneous bi-hemispheric cooling in monkeys). These were connected to each other via a pediatric Brown-Harrison high-efficiency heat-exchanger. Fluids of varying temperatures were circulated into the cylinder chamber around the tube containing the perfusing blood from a plastic reservoir using a sump pump. Under electroencephalography (EEG) control and with the F-C shunt open, each cervical artery was occluded beginning with the external carotids and ending with the closure of the vertebrals. With the demonstration that the shunt could maintain a normal EEG at normothermia, ACHP was instituted by altering the temperature of the fluid entering the heat-exchanger: After 48 minutes of perfusion, the intracerebral temperature had reached 11.4C. Electrocortical activity invariably ceases with cortical temperatures below 20C making the subject brain dead. Brain rewarming could be significantly retarded during the ischemic period by surrounding the head with ice. The patient made an uneventful recovery.

White[ 29 31 ] also experimented with biventricular cooling [ Figure 2 ]. Here, two 18G ventricular cannulas are inserted in the anterior horn of each lateral ventricle through small burr holes in the skull and fixed with acrylic cement; a similar cannula is inserted percutaneously in the cisterna magna for egress of the perfusate. Sodium chloride (NaCl) solution (154 mmol/) at 2C is perfused through both ventricular cannulas at a pressure of 80 cm/H2O and a flow of approximately 65 ml/min: <20C can be achieved in about 30 minutes. This technique has been employed in man: It is rapid and easy and obviates vascular cannulation, extracorporeal routing of the circulation, and total body anticoagulation. No damage to the brain has been reported.

Figure 2
Drawing depicting biventricular cooling for deep brain hypothermia in a monkey (from White 1978)

SNI-4-335-g002

Commercial cooling helmets are widely available[ 2 ] and similar contraptions helped White to lower and sustain brain temperature below 10C consistently. With pressure maintained at >80 mmHg through catecholamines infusion, 15C was achieved in <30 in White's Rhesus experiments. No neurologic deficit was detected.

In HEAVEN, once D's circulation starts flowing into R's exsanguinated head, normal temperatures will be reached within minutes. A thermistor in the brain can be replaced by one placed in the temporalis muscle (TM), as this closely correlates with intraparenchymal brain temperature.[ 26 ] The anesthesiological management during hypothermia is outlined elsewhere.[ 34 ]

D's spinal cord will be selectively cooled, that is, no systemic PH will be necessary. With custom-built units,[ 1 24 ] the spinal subdural and epidural spaces can be perfused with cold solutions at 4-15C, with rapid cooling and easily maintained at 10-15C for several hours without neurologic sequelae [ Figure 3 ]. Segmental hypothermia of the cervical cord produced no measurable temperature change of the brain.

Figure 3
Depiction of various ways to locally cord the spinal cord (from Negrin 1973)

SNI-4-335-g003

In the seminal experiment,[ 28 ] a Rhesus monkey [ Figure 4 ] was sedated, tracheotomized and mechanically respired, then transected at C4-C5 vertebral level. Surgical isolation was accomplished stepwise, under antibiotic coverage: - See more at: 

Figure 4
Drawing depicting the first total cephalosomatic exchange in a monkey (from White et al. 1971)

SNI-4-335-g004

Circumferential soft tissue and muscle were divided around the entire surface of the cervical vertebra with ligation and transection of the trachea and esophagus following appropriate intubation

Cervical laminectomy was performed at C4-C6 vertebral level with ligation and division of the spinal cord and its vasculature at C5-6. Following spinal cord division, an infusion of catecholamine was begun to counteract the hypotension of ensuing spinal shock with the maintenance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) 80-100 mmHg. Mechanical respiration was begun and continued throughout the experiment

The vertebral sinus was obliterated with judicious use of cautery and intravascular injection of fast-setting celloidin

Intraosseous destruction of the vertebral arteries was carried out

The vertebral body or interspace was transected. At this point, the head and body were completely separated save for the two neurovascular bundles

Each carotid artery and jugular vein in turn was divided and reconnected by means of a suitable sized tubing arranged in loops during constant EEG surveillance. Prior to cannulation, the preparation was heparinized and the vagi sectioned under ECG monitoring

For vascular transference of the cephalon to the new isolated body, the individual cannulas were occluded and withdrawn from the parent body carotid arteries and jugular veins (in sequence, allowing for continuous cerebral perfusion from one set of cannulas during the exchange) and replaced into the appropriate somatic vessel under EEG observation

Following successful cannula-vascular transfer, direct suture anastomosis of the carotid arteries and jugular veins was undertaken (silk 6-0 and 7-0, respectively) under the operating microscope. This permitted discontinuance of purposeful anticoagulation. Fresh monkey blood was available if significant losses were encountered under prolonged heparizination.

The monkey survived, neurologically intact, for 36 hours, having reacquired awareness within 3-4 hours.

With time, some blood loss was encountered from the muscles at the surfaces of surgical transection, due to chronic heparinization. The initial attempt to suture the vessels directly and thus eliminate the necessity of anticoagulation was only partially successful because of the constriction that developed in the jugular vein at the suture line, impeding venous return from the head.

No evidence of cellular changes compatible with a hyper-rejection reaction in cerebral tissue was seen on pathological examination up to 3 postoperative days.[ 29 31 ] The conclusion was that direct vascular suture will eliminate the long-term need for anticoagulation.

During the GEMINI procedure, the surgeons will cut the cooled spinal cords with an ultra-sharp blade: This is of course totally different from what happens in clinical spinal cord injury, where gross damage and scarring hinder regeneration. It is this clean cut the key to spinal cord fusion, in that it allows proximally severed axons to be fused with their distal counterparts. This fusion exploits so-called fusogens/sealants.

Several families of inorganic polymers (polyethylene glycol [PEG], nonionic detergents triblock copolymers, i.e., polymers of a PEG–propylene glycol–PEG structure: Poloxamers – e.g., poloxamer 188, 1107 – and poloxamines) are able to immediately reconstitute (fuse/repair) cell membranes damaged by mechanical injury, independently of any known endogenous sealing mechanism.[ 7 ] PEG (independent of molecular weight, 400-5000 being all equally effective) is both water-soluble and nontoxic in man; it can also seal the endothelium and wounds simply go dry during experimental laminectomy procedures.[ 20 ]

Originally, this fusogenic potential was exploited to induce the formation of hybridomas during the production of monoclonal antibodies as well as facilitating vesicular fusion in model membrane studies. Membrane fusion and attendant mixing of the cytoplasm of fused cells occurs when adjacent membranes touch in the presence of PEG or similar compound. Acute dehydration of the fusing plasmalemmas permits glycol/protein/lipid structures to resolve into each other at the outer membrane leaflet first and the inner membrane leaflet subsequently.[ 21 ] In other words, dehydration of the membrane facilitates the hydrophobic core of the lamellae to become continuous; rehydration after PEG exposure permits the polar forces associated with the water phase to help reorganize the structure of transmembrane elements. PEG is dislodged once the membrane is sealed. This reorganization of cellular water is believed to result from the strongly hydrophilic structure of PEG.

In contrast, triblock copolymers, which are mainly composed of PEG side chains around a high molecular mass hydrophobic core, act differently, namely, the hydrophobic head group inserts itself into the membrane breach, seal-plugging it.

The diameter of injured axons does not affect their susceptibility to repair by PEG: Both myelinated and unmyelinated axons are equally susceptible, but also neurons.

PEG is easy to administer and has a strong safety record in man, often employed as vehicle to clinically injected therapeutic agents.[ 33 ] P188 has also been utilized clinically in man without ill effects. Yet, the lower the molecular weight of PEG, the more toxic might be the by-products of degradation in the body (the monomer is very toxic) and thus only a molecular weight >1000 is totally safe in man.

Bittner et al.[ 5 ] were the first to show axonal fusion after complete axonal transection and data accrued since 1999 strongly point to the actual possibility of functional reconnection of the severed spinal cord.[ 7 12 ] In these experiments, immediate (within 2 minutes and in no case more than 3 minutes of disconnection) topical application to isolated severed (transected and reattached) guinea pig spinal cord white matter in vitro and both immediate topical or intravenous (IV) application of PEG in vivo reversed physiological conduction block and dramatically increased the number of surviving axons (i.e., the overall amount of spared white matter) to a similar degree. This was associated with an extremely rapid electrophysiological (100%) and/or behavioral (93%) recovery in mammals: The first action potentials are evident within 5-15.[ 7 12 ] In neurologically complete spinal cord injuries (SCI) in dogs, there was a significant and rapid recovery of conduction, ambulation, and sensibility.[ 7 12 ] Recovery is stable for at least a month and actually improves with time. In both dogs and guinea pigs, IV PEG still had effects, respectively, 72 and 8 hours after SCI (instead, rats could be salvaged at 2 and 4 hours, but not 6 hours, after brain injury: There was actually a worsening), but it should be stressed how IV injection of 30% PEG only increased the locomotor rating score by 0.7 out of a 21-point-scale compared with the controls receiving saline, partly due to the difficulty in delivering sufficient amount of agents to the injured site via systemic circulation. This is a clear indication for the need to use a topical approach. In any case, PEG appears to be superior to poloxamer 188. A successful phase I human trial of PEG on human volunteers has been completed.[ 12 ]

To sum up, no more than 2 minutes of application of PEG can fuse previously severed myelinated axons in completely transected spinal cords, enough to permit the diffusion of intracellular markers throughout the reconnected segments and immediate recover of conduction of compound action potentials lost after injury. Injected PEG crosses the blood–brain barrier and spontaneously targets areas of neural injury, without accumulating or lingering in undamaged tissues. Similarly, PEG injected beneath the perineural sheath near the lesion in peripheral nerves is effective in functional repair.[ 7 12 ]

Certainly, PEG-mediated plasma membrane resealing is incomplete: Compound action potentials are only 20% strong, owing to either leakiness to K+ or inability of PEG to target paranodal regions of clustered K+ channels likely exposed to demyelination. However, this can be partially offset by the administration of a specific agent, 4-AminoPyridine, a drug in clinical use, with doubling of recovered strength (40%).[ 12 ]

Fortunately, better ways to deliver PEG have been developed.

One involves self-assembled monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D, L-lactic acid) [mPEG (2000)-PDLLA] di-block copolymer micelles (60 nm diameter), in which a PEG shell surrounds a hydrophobic inner core. These polymeric micelles, sizing from 10 to 100 nm, possess unique properties such as biocompatibility and long blood residence time, and have been widely investigated as nano-carriers of water-insoluble drugs.[ 12 ] Injured spinal tissue incubated with micelles showed rapid restoration of compound action potential into axons. Much lower micelle concentration is required for treatment than pure PEG. Injected mPEG-PDLLA micelles are significantly more effective than high-concentration PEG in functional recovery of SCI, likely due to prolonged blood residence of mPEG-PDLLA micelles.

Another way exploits monodispersed, mesoporous spherical PEG-decorated silica nanoparticles: These are hydrophilic, biocompatible, nontoxic, and stable. This colloid-based PEG derivative may do an even better job compared with polymer solution by controlling the density of PEG molecules at cord level.[ 12 ] Recovery of SSEP conduction after 15-20 following injection was seen in guinea pigs with transected cords.[ 25 ]

An alternative, possible better way to fuse severed axons has been described.[ 6 ] Methylene Blue is applied in hypotonic Ca++free saline to open cut axonal ends and inhibit their plasmalemmal sealing. Then, a hypotonic solution of PEG (500 mM) is applied to open closely apposed axonal ends to induce their membranes to rapidly flow into each other (PEG-fusion). Finally, Ca++-containing isotonic saline is applied to remove PEG and to induce endogenous sealing of any remaining plasmalemmal holes by Ca++-induced accumulation and fusion of vesicles. This technique has been applied to experimentally cut sciatic nerves in rats with excellent results.

Better agents than PEG have been identified and are available. Chitosan (poly--(1 4)-D-glucosamine) is a positively charged natural polymer that can be prepared by de-N-acetylation of chitin, a widely found natural biopolymer (crustaceans, fungi). It is biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic. It is normally used as clinical hemostatic and wound healing agent in both gauze and granules. Chitosan appears superior to PEG: Chitosan in sterile saline (or otherwise nanoengineered nano/micro particles) can act as a potent membrane sealer and neuroprotector, being endowed with significant targeting ability.[ 12 ] Chitosan is capable of forming large phospholipid aggregates by inducing the fusion of small dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers, a major component of the plasma membrane.

Combining the actions of both chitosan and PEG leads to a newly developed hydrogel based on photo-cross-linkable chitosan (Az-C), prepared by partial conjugation of 4-azidobenzoic acid (ABA) to chitosan.[ 3 ] Chitosan hydrogel is attractive for use in GEMINI, due to its simplicity of application, tissue adhesiveness, safety, and biocompatibility. The Az-C network is reinforced by adding PEG (Az-C/PEG gel). Low-molecular-weight PEG with a nonreactive terminal group would be best. This gel can be applied as a viscous liquid that flows around the damaged cord temporarily held together. The gel precursor solution can be quickly cross-linked in situ by short-term UV illumination, covering the tubular part of the nerves and providing a reliable linkage during the healing process. The composite gels of PEG and Az-C have higher storage moduli and shorter gelation times than an Az-C gel or fibrin glue, and nerves anastomosed with an Az-C/PEG gel tolerate a higher force than those with fibrin glue prior to failure. These effects are likely due to the formation of a semi-IPN network, where PEG interpenetrates the covalent Az-C network and physically reinforces the network. Az-C/PEG gels are compatible with nerve tissues and cells. PEG is slowly released over a prolonged period, providing additional fusogenic potential.

A possible objection to GEMINI involves the supposed need for proper mechanical alignment (abutment) of the severed axons. The behavioral results of the PEG experiments, however, make a strong point that, while the number of axons reconnected to be expected is unknown, the results are nonetheless clinically meaningful, as highlighted by Bittner et al.[ 6 ] It is relevant to note how as little as 10% of descending spinal tracts are sufficient for some voluntary control of locomotion in man.[ 4 ] It is equally important to remark how the gray matter in this paradigm remains basically unscathed and functional. Here, interneuronal chains can function as a relay between the supraspinal input and the lower motor circuitry, given proper active training and provision of sensory cues in order to promote plasticity. Interneurons may act as central pattern generator for movement in man, and treatment strategies that promote their sprouting and reconnection of interneurons have great potential in promoting functional recovery.[ 17 ] One way to achieve this is by electrical stimulation: Electrical stimulation is known to promote plasticity and regeneration in patients (e.g., 20 Hz continuous stimulation.[ 8 14 ] In GEMINI, this would be achieved by installing an epidural spinal cord stimulating (SCS) apparatus, a commonly employed, safe way to treat neurological conditions. Parenthetically, these interneuronal chains can be set into operation by nonpatterned stimulation delivered via intact segmental input pathways: SCS has proved effective in this regard too in humans.[ 23 ] Another attractive way to supply electrical stimulation is by oscillating field stimulation.[ 27 ] Interestingly, electricity can be exploited to achieve axonal fusion (electrofusion): This method is at the moment not a suitable alternative for GEMINI, but it should be explored in this context.[ 11 ]

ʰʲά

ȸ Surgical Neurology International





˽ʥ᡼Υ¤ǭߤˤʤĤ餷

ʹ֤ˤʤĤΥ졩İ

1c5bd0f1-s

ХʺǼ顢Ǥ⤢ޤʹ֤򽱤ʤȤ

1b3d91f5

ԽäΤˡĤĻߤĶ襤®٤˥ѥꤷ̡ޤ夯ƼΨ50%Ȥ⤵ؤΤˡ饤Ȥϥʤ˳ʪ򲣼ꤵƲİꡦ

ͥɤ¤ߤ˿ʹ֤˲α

Woman Feeding Purring Cheetahs



Ǥäǭ

ͥϾʥ饤

饤礭ʥͥ

λǡ֥ɡ֡󥰡פо줹르Τ褦ŲƤ

񻳱ŲƤ쳤ǥ Ųֻ魈פȤλŦ

2014.06.27
 
a40

Υǥĥͤȿʹ֤ΥϡդΤ褦ʡŲפƤ줿ȤˤʤäƤ롣ѹǥ꡼᡼ʤʣγǥää󤸤

ŲƤ줿Τϡ25̵Ǥϰλ档ӽФʤۤ礭ܡΤȤäɡФäΤħǡDz֥ɡ֡󥰡פо줹֥פˤäꡣ

ƤϡѤ򤿤⤤Ƥ顢ʪΤ褦ʪ򸫤̿礫äΤΡɤäͦФΤФƤʤפФƤݤפȥȤƤ롣

äϤޤʤŲ˥ΤʤΤǤϤʤȤǤ夷ƤΤ̿ˤʤȡ򻣱ƤͥǤ뤳ȤȽͧãûSFDz򻣤뤿˻˹Ԥäλˤ줬줿פȥͥåȤƤƤ롣

ƼԤͥǤ뤳Ȥ䡢SFDz򻣤ˤäƤȤʤɤ顢եŲǤϤʤȸƤޤäƤ褦ȤϤ񥪥ȥե󤿤δ֤Ǥϡ˸ֻ魈פǤϤʤ˥եäȤƤ⤽ռƤС̤פȤäɾ⡣

ȸ ⤰⤰˥塼


What is that weird 'Gollum' monster photographed in the Chinese hills?
A man in China claims to have photographed a weird 'Gollum creature' among some rocks 
These pictures appear to show a human-like 'monster' spotted in a valley near the Great Wall of China.

A Chinese tourist, who does not want to be named, said he was camping in Huairou, Beijing, when he took a quick toilet break where he encountered the beast.

He took several pictures of the mystery creature, which resembles Gollum from Lord of the Rings.

Pictured: Mystery 'MONSTER' spotted near Great Wall of China resembles Lord of the Rings' Gollum

Gollum

Gollum-main

Follow us: @DailyMirror on Twitter | DailyMirror on Facebook
A Chinese tourist has taken what he says is a photo of a "monster" hiding in the valleys of Huairou, in the north of Beijing.

The unnamed holidaymaker was camping with some friends in the hilly region, not far from the Great Wall of China, when he saw the "creature".

"I walked far away to have a pee, and suddenly saw a monster. I took a few pictures of it, but I am now terrified."

The image of the strange flesh-coloured creature nestled among the bamboo is certainly striking, and has a marked resemblance to the creature Gollum from the Lord of the Rings films.
 
But one online commentator in China thought he had the solution to the "mystery". Please Subscribe to My Channel !

WorldWide TV



ƥե˥إХ󹻤θबֿʹ֤Υ󥳤ädzפȯϰǥѤȤ̵󶡳

ѤȤʤֿʹ֤Υ󥳤ädzפȯ / dz̵
 
palm-springs-023

βʤǯ⤯ʤǡ֤žͤϲȷפؤΥ᡼礭ʿãϯϤ븦बֿʹ֤ʪädzפȯϰǤϥѤȤ̵󶡳ϤȤΤǤ롣ʪȤϡ ȥ󥳡 ΤȤ

ʪФ줿Ǥdz
ƥե˥إХ󹻤θबե˥ܾģƹ񥨥ͥ륮ʤ1000ɥ10ߡˤλʹ֤ʪädzȯǤʪɤΤ褦dz뤫ñ褦

1. ޤdzθȤʤʪȸΤʬΥ
2. ᤵ줿ϺѤ졢Τ̤ʪ뿿󥯤롣
3. ʪʪò뤳Ȥˤäȯ᥿󥬥úǤȯŽdzơ
4. dzƤ줿Τϡब߷פdz֤졢ǿǤŵǮФ롣
5. ѥפdz줿ǤϡdzȤƼ֤뤹뤳Ȥǽ

ҥǤưdzӼ֤꡼
ڹμư֥᡼Ǥҥϡdzӷġ󡦥СΥ꡼򳫻ͽǡdzӼ֤οǥ480᡼ȥԤǤȤ꡼ηۤ499ɥ5ߡˤǡե˥12սߤdzǡ̵ǿǤǤ롣ޤ󥿥ҤȤȤơƱΥ󥼥륹Ԥȥ󥸥ƥԤƱ֤󥿥볫Ϥ뤳ȤˤʤäƤ롣

Ǽư֤ͶˤΥ
ӵФʤǼư֤ϡͶˤΥȤƼפäޤƤ롣ҥɽԤϡֿǤưdzӼ֤ϡɽ̵ӵ֤ˤʤǤ礦桹ԤȤơԤ˿Ǽư֤󶡤Ǥ뤳Ȥ˶餻ƤޤפȰյߤäƤ롣

ȥ西ȥۥ륻ǥ٥ġͥ⡼⡢ƱϰǿǼư֤䳫Ϥͽ

䥤ɤˤ֤μäǡƭ絤礭ˤʤäƤ롣˰¤ƴĶͥdzоǡ礭ž뤳ȤꤦФ

ȸ
Mail OnlineʱѸ
ɮNekolas
åȥ˥塼24

PhotoRocketnews24.

article-2567819-0BE657B100000578-798_634x286

ǺǤʹ֤֤ûƤʪ󥭥

ھ׷ۿʹ֤ˤȤäƺǤʪϲ 1ǯ֤70ͰʾɤĶʪϰճʥ
 
deadliset140502_02

ʤϡ ȿʹ֤ˤȤäƺǤʪ ϲȻפ饤פʤɤ緿äȤ⡢ǥإӤǥ⡢ʤɤǤʪȤ饤ġġ

ȤˤȤäơǤʪǯ¿οʹ֤̿åäƤĶʪNo.1No.2ϡï⤬ΤäƤճʪäΤĤ٤С饤䥵ʤơְפȸ٥Ǥ롣ϡޤdzǧǤ뤾

ﳲԤοв
ޤϡʪˤäơɤοͤ1ǯδ֤˻ɤƤΤפޤȤƻвΡ

ޤǡǤ ȴǤϤϤʤ ʪϤȤȡġĤʤȥȥߤ2ˤäơǯ10ͤοͤ˴ʤäƤ롣ϥ饤󡢥ǡﳲԤο100͡

³ơФ˻줿Τ500͡ˤ1000͡ʥॷ2000͡2500͡ĥꡢᡢĥĥХϤ1͡25000͡إӤ5ͤǤ롣

ĶʪNo.1ϲ㡢No.2Ͽʹ
ʪNo.2ϡʤȿʹ֡ʹƱΤλ礤ʤɤˤäơʿѤ1ǯ475000ͤ˴ʤäƤ롣ơNo.1ϡġġֲפǤ롣ˤäơ725000ͤοͤ̿ȤƤΤ

ʲɽʤϥޥꥢǡǯ60Ͱʾ夬̿ȤƤΤȤʳˤ⡢2500ʾβ㤬¸ߤƥǮ䲫Ǯ¡Ǿ޲ԤȤʤΤΰǤ롣

ӥ롦Ĥ֥ȯɽ
¤ϤοޡΥӥ롦Ļ᤬֥ȯɽΤǤ롣ɤ顢ӥ롦ĻϡWHOݷ򵡹ˤΥǡʤɤ򸵤ˡޤ褦Ļϥ֥ǡΤ褦ʶŪʿ򤢤ơδˤĤդ¥Ƥ롣

ɼԤˤ ȿʹ֤̿åäƤʪϲ Τäơäͤ¿ΤǤϤʤơ2̤ʹ֤ȤΤġġȤˤޤ򸫤ƤȡִʪפˤĤơͤ롣

ȸ AcidCow gatesnotesʱѸ
ɮ ºͺϺ
åȥ˥塼24

餬ƤޡMosquitoʲˤȥĤ1̤Ǥ뢧
deadliest140502_011

ӥ롦Ļ᤬֥ǸƤư衣ݤȯʬ뤬ʰ̣ݤΤDZա





ǺǤʹ֤֤ûƤʪ󥭥󥰤Ǥȥå19ޤǤҲ

1̡ ʹ ǯ֡ͤ򻦤
animals_19

2̡ ǯ 1000000ͤ򻦤
animals_18

3̡ ϥ ǯ500000ͤ򻦤 ˥ĥĥХȥѥΥ޾ɤˤ
animals_17

4̡ إ ǯ 500000ͤ򻦤
animals_16

5̡ ǯ 5000ͤ򻦤
animals_15

6̡ ǯ 3000ͤ򻦤
animals_14

7̡ ǯ 15002500ͤ򻦤
animals_13

8̡ ǯ 500ͤ򻦤
animals_12

9̡ Хåե ǯ 200ͤ򻦤
animals_11

10̡ ǯ 186ͤ򻦤
animals_10

11̡ ǯ 120ͤ򻦤 ̻Τʤɤˤ
animals_09

12̡ ȥ ǯ 100ͤ򻦤
animals_08

13̡ 饲 ǯ 75ͤ򻦤 15ܡ
animals_07

14̡ 饤 ǯ 70ͤ򻦤
animals_06

15̡ ߥĥХ ǯ 53ͤ򻦤
animals_05

16̡ ǯ 30ͤ򻦤
animals_04

17̡ ǯ 20ͤ򻦤
animals_03

18̡ ǯ 20ͤ򻦤
animals_02

19̡ ҥ祦 ǯ 15ͤ򻦤
animals_01







QR
QR
  • 饤֥ɥ֥