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2015ǯ05

ưιˡƤ̤Τ򿨤ʤɡɤ襤Ĺ԰١ɡܺ긩ԾԤع͡ˤ

˽̿äع͡

2015ǯ52217:34
 
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ưιˡƤ̤Τ򿨤ʤɡ襤Ĥʹ԰٤򤷤Ȥơܺ긩ԾԤع͡ˤ襤Ĥεᤵޤ

ޤäΤϡԾԤع͡ëŻͻƵԡʣˤǤٻĴ٤ˤޤȡëƵԤϡ뤫飲̤ˤơ̳ưι桢ƤФν̤Τ򿨤ʤɡ襤Ĥʹ԰٤򤷤Ƥޤ

̤ν̤ݸԤﳲϤٻëƵԤİȤƵǧ᤿ᡢ襤Ĥεᤷޤ

ֿ鿼ӿ夲ޤסʵܺ긩ѡ

ܺ긩ѰϡëƵԤ򣲣դĨȿʬȤޤ

ȸ TBS˥塼




ɤǽν̿롡襤Ƶع͡

2015.5.22 17:40

ܺ긩٤ϣΤ򿨤äȤƶ襤Ĥεǡܺ긩ԾԤθΩع͡ëŻͻΡʤĤ褷ƵԡʣˡƱǯĮᤷ

Ƶϣ̤ιɤˬ줿Ʊ䲬Ԥλߤǡä̡ʣˤΤ򿨤äȤƤ롣

٤ˤȡﳲ̤Ȥ̤̤ݸԤԾ̤ȯФ٤Ϥۤˤʣ̤ﳲäȤߤĴ٤Ƥ롣ѰϣëƵԤĨȿʬˤ

ȸ пʹ

ͻԤعǵѤμ桢͡ɤĤɤڤ򺮤ơʣ̤˿٤ƤȤȯ

̤ڤ٤롡椫Ĥ˺ͤض͡

2015ǯ523()831ʬۿ
 
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ͻԿλΩعǡѤμ桢͡Ĥڤ򺮤ʣ̤˿٤ƤȤƱؤμʬä͡ϡڤδäפƱϳ̤ݸԤ˼պ᤹Ȥ

Ʊˤȡ͡ϺǯǯΣǯ˼Ȥڹ򶵤͡ϥʤڤ±򤷤塢Ĥڤ򺮤ָʬĤäڤ󿩤٤Ƥߤ뤫פʤɤ̤˴᤿Ȥ

ͻԶѰʤɤˤȡ˾̽ͤ˴ޤߡڤϤФΤޤޤΤ߹ȤĴɤʤϤʤȤ

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ȸ ͿʹNEXT



ݽδڹҤβ²4ͤɤҤ25ˤᡡƤϻ˴

ͤ25ˤ²ɤ1ͻ˴

2015/05/23 17:45
 
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ȸ FNN˥塼




ݽβ²飴ͻɤ롡Ƥϻ˴ˤ

2015ǯ5231153ʬ

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ʬ棳ܤΥޥ󥷥ǡ֥٥˿ʪäˤ롣ơȤʹפȣ󤬤ä˽²ͤƤˤ˻ɤ졢ͤ˴ٻģϡҤǤ޻ܶƵԡʣˤ򻦿̤εǸᤷ

ȿȺкݤˤȡ˴ΤϤ˽ڹҤβҰᤵʣˡۤˣκʤȡ̼ͤǣνĤν人Ĺʣˤ⤱äϼڤŽƵԤˤ򤷤±˱Ф줿ȤƵԤϽȸäȤƱݤȥ̵֥ͭˤĤĴ٤Ƥ롣

ƱݤǤϡƵԤϣΥ٥鼼˿ˤäƤʿϤ󣲣ˤǼڤĤθ塢ǽƵԤ겡褦Ȥ人Ĺ򿶤ڤäƽɤ᤯ϩǤ˻ɤȤȤĤ̤νƵԤϩǼ겡

ȸ īʹ


㻦̤²ڤ죴ͻᡡ

2015ǯ523()1125ʬۿ

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ʬ棳Υޥ󥷥ΰ켼ǡֿʪäˤ롣ǡؽơ٤ʹפնν̱飱֤äٻģդȡ˽ࣴնڤƿߤξ֤ǸĤꡢ˴ǧ줿κʤȣĹʪڤڽäƱϡ᤯ϩˤ̸߽ǣҤˤ򻦿̤ƵǸᤷ

Ʊˤȡˤڤդ餷նˤǶդƱνٻڤƷڤˤĹȸݤƤȤطȥ֥ˤʤäǽȤߤƤ롣

ϵŴ翹߱ؤ󣵣᡼ȥν𳹡᤯οŹʣˤϡŹǻŹߤ򤷤Ƥ顢ܸǡؽơ٤Ȥζʹ˽Ф顢Υޥ󥷥Υ٥ȤФƤפȸ֤ν⤦ͤνȣͤǥޥ󥷥󤫤鳰ӽФƤɤˤθѤΰͤϥ硼ȥѥĻѤǡ­餱äŤʽ𳹤ˤä˿ͤʤΤǶäפäƤ

̤ζ᤯ΰŹˤŹϡ֤դϥޥ󥷥󤬷¤ֽ𳹤ǡʤŤʤȤʻ郎ʤơפäƤڻݷ㵭ҡ

ȸ ʹ






²ߤݸ⺾䵶뺧ʤɤȹԤ򷫤֤ƤХ󥰥ǥͤ3

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2015/05/22 15:52

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ࡦեƵԡ24ˤ2ͤϤȤȤ5Х󥰥ǥ˵桢ڹɡʤ󤭤󤳤ˤƯʤäʤɤȱο򤷤ơݸ2000ߤޤȤƤޤ

ƤΥե䥹ߥƵԡ44ˤ2012ǯܿͤˤλ˱κϤФƤޤ3ͤƵǧƤޤٻģˤޤȡ3ͤϲ²ߤݸ⺾䵶뺧ʤɤȹԤ򷫤֤ƤȤߤ졢ٻģ;Ĵ٤Ƥޤ

ȸ ƥī˥塼




ɥǯ֥Υפٱ礷Ƥ˽Ƭ

ɥᾯǯֻٱס󶡤Ƭ

2015ǯ522()1732ʬۿ
 
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λҺפǾ̵ԵʥɥˤФͽ򤷤ȤơͻԤ̵ǯʣˤ϶̳˸Ƶᤵ줿ǡǯΡֻٱԡפ̾˽Ƭǯ˷ףߤ󶡤ȤٻģȤδϢĴ٤Ƥ롣

ǯݤˤȡϡ־ǯθ¤˥ѥȤƣߤ򿶤פֺǯ˾ǯư򸫤ƻٱ򤹤褦ˤʤäפäƤȤǯϼȤΥ֥ȤǴդäƤꡢƱݤϻٱԤǽȤߤƤ

ǯϣҺפǥɥФȤ򼨺ȯ򤷡ư趦ͭȤۿżԤ˷򶯲ʤɤ롣

ȸ īʹ

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ڴϢ
ɥ15Фξǯ֥Υ ̳˸Ƶ

դΤȽʣƣť빩Ŵϧΰ졢ȯ

㤴դΣʣƣŹ졢̤ˣ١ϣָ塡ɤΩꡡ

2015ǯ0521 10:20
 
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ʣƣťŴ϶ջˤǣʬŴϧΰ졢ȯ۾︽ݤȯ硢ľ󤹤褦ˡǵ̳դƤ뤬ʣƣŤԾɶɤʤɤϢΤ󣱣ָäԾɶɤϣ̳ȿĴΤṩΩ긡

ʣƣŤˤȡŴȯúǥ򡢰úǥ˽֤ΥӽФȡʥƥ쥹ľ£᡼ȥˤ󣲥᡼ȥ줿᲻ȯdzγȻ䤱ͤϤʤäʣƣŤȻԾɶɤ»Ĵ٤Ƥ롣

ɺҲݤʤɤˤȡ۾︽ݤο®̳ɺҤŪǡӥʡҳɻˡפǵꤵƤ롣ʣƣŴ̳ϡ־ɤؤ٤ν̱ؤϢ٤ʤꡢǤ򤫤Ȥ򤪤ӤפȤƤ롣

٤ˤȡȯľˡ֥ɡȤ礭ʲפȤջ⤫飳ͳƻ⤫飱濫ä̾Ի֡Ŀͳ

ȸ ʹ

ڴϢ
2015ǯ519̤ոνͳƻʤɹϰϤ2ȯ


ꥢΰդײ衢󤫤鲼㤷ԤƬڤΥǾȽꤵ줿¾ͤΤ˰ܿ

ʹ֤Ƭܿǯˤ»ܡꥢΰդײ

2015.04.06 Mon posted at 12:41 JST

doctor-gloves

ʣãΣΡ 󤫤鲼ޤҤԤƬڤΥǾȽꤵ줿¾ͤΤ˰ܿ롽ꥢΰդʣӣƤΤ褦ʰܿѤιۤƤ롣ƹǣ˳زǹֱ餷ƶϼԤͤ

ꥢΥ른ʥ١դƤƤΤϡƬ̤οΤդؤ֣ȣţ֣ţΡʣȣ䡡󡡣֣ˡפȸƤФѡޤۤ٤¿롣

ͽΰϳݺѤߤǡĤϰ̤л륯饦ɥեǥ󥰤ҤǤޤʤͽȤ

ܤȤʤδԤϣФΥǡɥ˥åҡۥեޥ¤Ȥ¤鷺äƤꡢʬѤ˾ƤȤʥ١դϥ󥿡ͥåȤ𤷤ƤäǤޤäȤϤʤƤʤɤ⸫Ƥʤ

ʥ١դϡۤˤѤ˾봵ԤΥ᡼椬̤ϤƤäΤߤ˾ȥ󥹥奢οͤ¿뤬ܤμѤ϶ڰ̾ɤδԤоݤˤƱդ϶Ĵ

⤦Ĥ礭ɤϥѡȥʡõۤɤμѤϥʥ١ñȤǤϤǤä絬ϤʰŻߤζϤԲķ硣ƹdzʳزǯǷײƶϼԤõȤȤˡƬܿѤμ»ܤˤĤƣǯޤǤ˾ǧͤ

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¸ΤɤΩƤдǸդȰգͤΥȿͽǡäȤФ¿󤻤ƤȤѤˤ֤ϣ֤򸫹ࡣ

βǽˤĤƤϡǯƥ󡦥ꥶذعǹԤ줿ƬܿѤ礤˽ФƤ롣ϼѤ飸˵ȿΤƬΤԿܹǤʤäΤưȤϤǤϸƵۤǤʤäǯ˥룶ɤƬ̤ܿμ¸Ǥ⡢ӤϤʤäȤ

Ǥ⥫ʥ١դϡŤʳؤοˤäƤϹǤȼĥ롣ǯˤϥ󥿡ͥåȤΰػʸȯɽԿǤ̤ΤˤĤʤؤ뵻ѤʤɤˤĤƲ⤷

ФǾʳز񼡴ĹΥϥȡХդϡɤܹǤƤԿĤʤȤϤǤԤưȤƵۤ뤳ȤǤʤȻŦ֤μ¸˾ޤʤʬˤФˤʤ̤ⰭȤˤʤפȸڤä

˥塼衼ؤΥץդ⡢ʥ١դȯɽˤϲʳŪʺ򤬤ʤȽҤ١ϼˤʤȰ콳Ƥ롣

ȸ CNN.CO.JP


HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI)

Correspondence Address:
Sergio Canavero
Turin Advanced Neuromodulation Group, Turin, Italy

DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.113444

Copyright: c 2013 Canavero S This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
How to cite this article: Canavero S. HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI). Surg Neurol Int 13-Jun-2013;4:

How to cite this URL: Canavero S. HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI). Surg Neurol Int 13-Jun-2013;4:. Available from:

In 1970, the first cephalosomatic linkage was achieved in the monkey. However, the technology did not exist for reconnecting the spinal cord, and this line of research was no longer pursued. In this paper, an outline for the first total cephalic exchange in man is provided and spinal reconnection is described. The use of fusogens, special membrane-fusion substances, is discussed in view of the first human cord linkage. Several human diseases without cure might benefit from the procedure.

Keywords: Fusogens, head transplantation, spinal cord reconstruction

In 1970, Robert White and his colleagues successfully transplanted the head of a rhesus monkey on the body of another one, whose head had simultaneously been removed. The monkey lived 8 days and was, by all measures, normal, having suffered no complications.[ 28 ] A few years later, he wrote: ȡWhat has been accomplished in the animal model – prolonged hypothermic preservation and cephalic transplantation, is fully accomplishable in the human sphere. Whether such dramatic procedures will ever be justified in the human area must wait not only upon the continued advance of medical science but more appropriately the moral and social justification of such procedural undertakings.[ 29 ] In 1999, he predicted that ȡwhat has always been the stuff of science fiction - the Frankenstein legend, in which an entire human being is constructed by sewing various body parts together – will become a clinical reality early in the 21st century brain transplantation, at least initially, will really be head transplantation – or body transplantation, depending on your perspective with the significant improvements in surgical techniques and postoperative management since then, it is now possible to consider adapting the head-transplant technique to humans.[ 30 ]

The greatest technical hurdle to such endeavor is of course the reconnection of the donor (D)'s and recipient (R)'s spinal cords. It is my contention that the technology only now exists for such linkage. This paper sketches out a possible human scenario and outlines the technology to reconnect the severed cord (project GEMINI). It is argued that several up to now hopeless medical conditions might benefit from such procedure.

HYPOTHERMIA PROTOCOL
The only way to perform a cephalic exchange in man is to cool the body-recipient (R)'s head to such a low temperature to allow the surgeons to disconnect and reconnect it to the donor (D)'s body, whose head has been removed in the same operating theater by a second surgical team. Once R's head has been detached, it must be joined to D's body, that is, it must be reconnected to the circulatory flow of D, within the hour.[ 29 30 31 ] Mammals can be sustained without blood flow for 1 hour at most when cooled to the accepted safe lower limit of 12-15C: At a temperature of 15C, the cerebral metabolic rate in man is 10% of normal. Recovery following circulatory arrest for as long as 1 hour has been reported at <20C temperatures since the 1950s.[ 13 15 ] Profound hypothermia (PH) curtails the onset of global ischemia and give time to the surgeons to reconnect the bodies.

Clinical experience in cardiac surgery has demonstrated that total circulatory arrest under deep hypothermia (18C) for 45 minutes produces virtually no discernible neurological damage, with a slight increase on approaching the hour.[ 16 34 ] Experience with surgical clipping of aneurysms shows the safety of the procedure.[ 22 ]

R's blood subjected to PH tends to become coagulopathic: Accordingly, R's head will be exsanguinated before linkage, and flushed with iced (4C) Ringer's lactate.[ 2 13 ]

Hypothermia can be achieved in several ways,[ 2 ] but, in this particular endeavor, it will not involve total body extracorporeal circulation (TBEC), in order to avoid the attendant ill effects (brain damage and coagulopathy), and make the procedure as simple and as cheap as possible.

White developed a special form of PH, which he named autocerebral hypothermic perfusion (ACHP).[ 32 ] No pumps or oxygenators are called for [ Figure 1 ]. The first patient submitted to this protocol was operated on in November 1968 for removal of a brain lesion. Here follows a short description.

Figure 1
Drawing depicting White's autocerebral hypothermic perfusion in place (from White 1978)

SNI-4-335-g001

After induction of anesthesia and intubation, and insertion of a cerebral 21G thermistor into the right parietal lobe and appropriate exposure, the common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed. The two vertebral arteries were uncovered on each side of the neck as they coursed toward their body canals just caudal to the C6 body. Silk ligatures were passed around each individual artery and threaded through a short glass tube with a narrow opening and capped with a rubber tip for temporary nontraumatic occlusion. Following total body heparizination, the left femoral (F) artery and both common carotid (C) arteries were cannulated with small slightly curved metal cannulas (single carotid cannulation had been found to be unsafe in that it did not afford homogeneous bi-hemispheric cooling in monkeys). These were connected to each other via a pediatric Brown-Harrison high-efficiency heat-exchanger. Fluids of varying temperatures were circulated into the cylinder chamber around the tube containing the perfusing blood from a plastic reservoir using a sump pump. Under electroencephalography (EEG) control and with the F-C shunt open, each cervical artery was occluded beginning with the external carotids and ending with the closure of the vertebrals. With the demonstration that the shunt could maintain a normal EEG at normothermia, ACHP was instituted by altering the temperature of the fluid entering the heat-exchanger: After 48 minutes of perfusion, the intracerebral temperature had reached 11.4C. Electrocortical activity invariably ceases with cortical temperatures below 20C making the subject brain dead. Brain rewarming could be significantly retarded during the ischemic period by surrounding the head with ice. The patient made an uneventful recovery.

White[ 29 31 ] also experimented with biventricular cooling [ Figure 2 ]. Here, two 18G ventricular cannulas are inserted in the anterior horn of each lateral ventricle through small burr holes in the skull and fixed with acrylic cement; a similar cannula is inserted percutaneously in the cisterna magna for egress of the perfusate. Sodium chloride (NaCl) solution (154 mmol/) at 2C is perfused through both ventricular cannulas at a pressure of 80 cm/H2O and a flow of approximately 65 ml/min: <20C can be achieved in about 30 minutes. This technique has been employed in man: It is rapid and easy and obviates vascular cannulation, extracorporeal routing of the circulation, and total body anticoagulation. No damage to the brain has been reported.

Figure 2
Drawing depicting biventricular cooling for deep brain hypothermia in a monkey (from White 1978)

SNI-4-335-g002

Commercial cooling helmets are widely available[ 2 ] and similar contraptions helped White to lower and sustain brain temperature below 10C consistently. With pressure maintained at >80 mmHg through catecholamines infusion, 15C was achieved in <30 in White's Rhesus experiments. No neurologic deficit was detected.

In HEAVEN, once D's circulation starts flowing into R's exsanguinated head, normal temperatures will be reached within minutes. A thermistor in the brain can be replaced by one placed in the temporalis muscle (TM), as this closely correlates with intraparenchymal brain temperature.[ 26 ] The anesthesiological management during hypothermia is outlined elsewhere.[ 34 ]

D's spinal cord will be selectively cooled, that is, no systemic PH will be necessary. With custom-built units,[ 1 24 ] the spinal subdural and epidural spaces can be perfused with cold solutions at 4-15C, with rapid cooling and easily maintained at 10-15C for several hours without neurologic sequelae [ Figure 3 ]. Segmental hypothermia of the cervical cord produced no measurable temperature change of the brain.

Figure 3
Depiction of various ways to locally cord the spinal cord (from Negrin 1973)

SNI-4-335-g003

In the seminal experiment,[ 28 ] a Rhesus monkey [ Figure 4 ] was sedated, tracheotomized and mechanically respired, then transected at C4-C5 vertebral level. Surgical isolation was accomplished stepwise, under antibiotic coverage: - See more at: 

Figure 4
Drawing depicting the first total cephalosomatic exchange in a monkey (from White et al. 1971)

SNI-4-335-g004

Circumferential soft tissue and muscle were divided around the entire surface of the cervical vertebra with ligation and transection of the trachea and esophagus following appropriate intubation

Cervical laminectomy was performed at C4-C6 vertebral level with ligation and division of the spinal cord and its vasculature at C5-6. Following spinal cord division, an infusion of catecholamine was begun to counteract the hypotension of ensuing spinal shock with the maintenance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) 80-100 mmHg. Mechanical respiration was begun and continued throughout the experiment

The vertebral sinus was obliterated with judicious use of cautery and intravascular injection of fast-setting celloidin

Intraosseous destruction of the vertebral arteries was carried out

The vertebral body or interspace was transected. At this point, the head and body were completely separated save for the two neurovascular bundles

Each carotid artery and jugular vein in turn was divided and reconnected by means of a suitable sized tubing arranged in loops during constant EEG surveillance. Prior to cannulation, the preparation was heparinized and the vagi sectioned under ECG monitoring

For vascular transference of the cephalon to the new isolated body, the individual cannulas were occluded and withdrawn from the parent body carotid arteries and jugular veins (in sequence, allowing for continuous cerebral perfusion from one set of cannulas during the exchange) and replaced into the appropriate somatic vessel under EEG observation

Following successful cannula-vascular transfer, direct suture anastomosis of the carotid arteries and jugular veins was undertaken (silk 6-0 and 7-0, respectively) under the operating microscope. This permitted discontinuance of purposeful anticoagulation. Fresh monkey blood was available if significant losses were encountered under prolonged heparizination.

The monkey survived, neurologically intact, for 36 hours, having reacquired awareness within 3-4 hours.

With time, some blood loss was encountered from the muscles at the surfaces of surgical transection, due to chronic heparinization. The initial attempt to suture the vessels directly and thus eliminate the necessity of anticoagulation was only partially successful because of the constriction that developed in the jugular vein at the suture line, impeding venous return from the head.

No evidence of cellular changes compatible with a hyper-rejection reaction in cerebral tissue was seen on pathological examination up to 3 postoperative days.[ 29 31 ] The conclusion was that direct vascular suture will eliminate the long-term need for anticoagulation.

During the GEMINI procedure, the surgeons will cut the cooled spinal cords with an ultra-sharp blade: This is of course totally different from what happens in clinical spinal cord injury, where gross damage and scarring hinder regeneration. It is this clean cut the key to spinal cord fusion, in that it allows proximally severed axons to be fused with their distal counterparts. This fusion exploits so-called fusogens/sealants.

Several families of inorganic polymers (polyethylene glycol [PEG], nonionic detergents triblock copolymers, i.e., polymers of a PEG–propylene glycol–PEG structure: Poloxamers – e.g., poloxamer 188, 1107 – and poloxamines) are able to immediately reconstitute (fuse/repair) cell membranes damaged by mechanical injury, independently of any known endogenous sealing mechanism.[ 7 ] PEG (independent of molecular weight, 400-5000 being all equally effective) is both water-soluble and nontoxic in man; it can also seal the endothelium and wounds simply go dry during experimental laminectomy procedures.[ 20 ]

Originally, this fusogenic potential was exploited to induce the formation of hybridomas during the production of monoclonal antibodies as well as facilitating vesicular fusion in model membrane studies. Membrane fusion and attendant mixing of the cytoplasm of fused cells occurs when adjacent membranes touch in the presence of PEG or similar compound. Acute dehydration of the fusing plasmalemmas permits glycol/protein/lipid structures to resolve into each other at the outer membrane leaflet first and the inner membrane leaflet subsequently.[ 21 ] In other words, dehydration of the membrane facilitates the hydrophobic core of the lamellae to become continuous; rehydration after PEG exposure permits the polar forces associated with the water phase to help reorganize the structure of transmembrane elements. PEG is dislodged once the membrane is sealed. This reorganization of cellular water is believed to result from the strongly hydrophilic structure of PEG.

In contrast, triblock copolymers, which are mainly composed of PEG side chains around a high molecular mass hydrophobic core, act differently, namely, the hydrophobic head group inserts itself into the membrane breach, seal-plugging it.

The diameter of injured axons does not affect their susceptibility to repair by PEG: Both myelinated and unmyelinated axons are equally susceptible, but also neurons.

PEG is easy to administer and has a strong safety record in man, often employed as vehicle to clinically injected therapeutic agents.[ 33 ] P188 has also been utilized clinically in man without ill effects. Yet, the lower the molecular weight of PEG, the more toxic might be the by-products of degradation in the body (the monomer is very toxic) and thus only a molecular weight >1000 is totally safe in man.

Bittner et al.[ 5 ] were the first to show axonal fusion after complete axonal transection and data accrued since 1999 strongly point to the actual possibility of functional reconnection of the severed spinal cord.[ 7 12 ] In these experiments, immediate (within 2 minutes and in no case more than 3 minutes of disconnection) topical application to isolated severed (transected and reattached) guinea pig spinal cord white matter in vitro and both immediate topical or intravenous (IV) application of PEG in vivo reversed physiological conduction block and dramatically increased the number of surviving axons (i.e., the overall amount of spared white matter) to a similar degree. This was associated with an extremely rapid electrophysiological (100%) and/or behavioral (93%) recovery in mammals: The first action potentials are evident within 5-15.[ 7 12 ] In neurologically complete spinal cord injuries (SCI) in dogs, there was a significant and rapid recovery of conduction, ambulation, and sensibility.[ 7 12 ] Recovery is stable for at least a month and actually improves with time. In both dogs and guinea pigs, IV PEG still had effects, respectively, 72 and 8 hours after SCI (instead, rats could be salvaged at 2 and 4 hours, but not 6 hours, after brain injury: There was actually a worsening), but it should be stressed how IV injection of 30% PEG only increased the locomotor rating score by 0.7 out of a 21-point-scale compared with the controls receiving saline, partly due to the difficulty in delivering sufficient amount of agents to the injured site via systemic circulation. This is a clear indication for the need to use a topical approach. In any case, PEG appears to be superior to poloxamer 188. A successful phase I human trial of PEG on human volunteers has been completed.[ 12 ]

To sum up, no more than 2 minutes of application of PEG can fuse previously severed myelinated axons in completely transected spinal cords, enough to permit the diffusion of intracellular markers throughout the reconnected segments and immediate recover of conduction of compound action potentials lost after injury. Injected PEG crosses the blood–brain barrier and spontaneously targets areas of neural injury, without accumulating or lingering in undamaged tissues. Similarly, PEG injected beneath the perineural sheath near the lesion in peripheral nerves is effective in functional repair.[ 7 12 ]

Certainly, PEG-mediated plasma membrane resealing is incomplete: Compound action potentials are only 20% strong, owing to either leakiness to K+ or inability of PEG to target paranodal regions of clustered K+ channels likely exposed to demyelination. However, this can be partially offset by the administration of a specific agent, 4-AminoPyridine, a drug in clinical use, with doubling of recovered strength (40%).[ 12 ]

Fortunately, better ways to deliver PEG have been developed.

One involves self-assembled monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D, L-lactic acid) [mPEG (2000)-PDLLA] di-block copolymer micelles (60 nm diameter), in which a PEG shell surrounds a hydrophobic inner core. These polymeric micelles, sizing from 10 to 100 nm, possess unique properties such as biocompatibility and long blood residence time, and have been widely investigated as nano-carriers of water-insoluble drugs.[ 12 ] Injured spinal tissue incubated with micelles showed rapid restoration of compound action potential into axons. Much lower micelle concentration is required for treatment than pure PEG. Injected mPEG-PDLLA micelles are significantly more effective than high-concentration PEG in functional recovery of SCI, likely due to prolonged blood residence of mPEG-PDLLA micelles.

Another way exploits monodispersed, mesoporous spherical PEG-decorated silica nanoparticles: These are hydrophilic, biocompatible, nontoxic, and stable. This colloid-based PEG derivative may do an even better job compared with polymer solution by controlling the density of PEG molecules at cord level.[ 12 ] Recovery of SSEP conduction after 15-20 following injection was seen in guinea pigs with transected cords.[ 25 ]

An alternative, possible better way to fuse severed axons has been described.[ 6 ] Methylene Blue is applied in hypotonic Ca++free saline to open cut axonal ends and inhibit their plasmalemmal sealing. Then, a hypotonic solution of PEG (500 mM) is applied to open closely apposed axonal ends to induce their membranes to rapidly flow into each other (PEG-fusion). Finally, Ca++-containing isotonic saline is applied to remove PEG and to induce endogenous sealing of any remaining plasmalemmal holes by Ca++-induced accumulation and fusion of vesicles. This technique has been applied to experimentally cut sciatic nerves in rats with excellent results.

Better agents than PEG have been identified and are available. Chitosan (poly--(1 4)-D-glucosamine) is a positively charged natural polymer that can be prepared by de-N-acetylation of chitin, a widely found natural biopolymer (crustaceans, fungi). It is biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic. It is normally used as clinical hemostatic and wound healing agent in both gauze and granules. Chitosan appears superior to PEG: Chitosan in sterile saline (or otherwise nanoengineered nano/micro particles) can act as a potent membrane sealer and neuroprotector, being endowed with significant targeting ability.[ 12 ] Chitosan is capable of forming large phospholipid aggregates by inducing the fusion of small dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers, a major component of the plasma membrane.

Combining the actions of both chitosan and PEG leads to a newly developed hydrogel based on photo-cross-linkable chitosan (Az-C), prepared by partial conjugation of 4-azidobenzoic acid (ABA) to chitosan.[ 3 ] Chitosan hydrogel is attractive for use in GEMINI, due to its simplicity of application, tissue adhesiveness, safety, and biocompatibility. The Az-C network is reinforced by adding PEG (Az-C/PEG gel). Low-molecular-weight PEG with a nonreactive terminal group would be best. This gel can be applied as a viscous liquid that flows around the damaged cord temporarily held together. The gel precursor solution can be quickly cross-linked in situ by short-term UV illumination, covering the tubular part of the nerves and providing a reliable linkage during the healing process. The composite gels of PEG and Az-C have higher storage moduli and shorter gelation times than an Az-C gel or fibrin glue, and nerves anastomosed with an Az-C/PEG gel tolerate a higher force than those with fibrin glue prior to failure. These effects are likely due to the formation of a semi-IPN network, where PEG interpenetrates the covalent Az-C network and physically reinforces the network. Az-C/PEG gels are compatible with nerve tissues and cells. PEG is slowly released over a prolonged period, providing additional fusogenic potential.

A possible objection to GEMINI involves the supposed need for proper mechanical alignment (abutment) of the severed axons. The behavioral results of the PEG experiments, however, make a strong point that, while the number of axons reconnected to be expected is unknown, the results are nonetheless clinically meaningful, as highlighted by Bittner et al.[ 6 ] It is relevant to note how as little as 10% of descending spinal tracts are sufficient for some voluntary control of locomotion in man.[ 4 ] It is equally important to remark how the gray matter in this paradigm remains basically unscathed and functional. Here, interneuronal chains can function as a relay between the supraspinal input and the lower motor circuitry, given proper active training and provision of sensory cues in order to promote plasticity. Interneurons may act as central pattern generator for movement in man, and treatment strategies that promote their sprouting and reconnection of interneurons have great potential in promoting functional recovery.[ 17 ] One way to achieve this is by electrical stimulation: Electrical stimulation is known to promote plasticity and regeneration in patients (e.g., 20 Hz continuous stimulation.[ 8 14 ] In GEMINI, this would be achieved by installing an epidural spinal cord stimulating (SCS) apparatus, a commonly employed, safe way to treat neurological conditions. Parenthetically, these interneuronal chains can be set into operation by nonpatterned stimulation delivered via intact segmental input pathways: SCS has proved effective in this regard too in humans.[ 23 ] Another attractive way to supply electrical stimulation is by oscillating field stimulation.[ 27 ] Interestingly, electricity can be exploited to achieve axonal fusion (electrofusion): This method is at the moment not a suitable alternative for GEMINI, but it should be explored in this context.[ 11 ]

ʰʲά

ȸ Surgical Neurology International





ԻԤǥߥ󥰥ΥХ˥ȥå͡Ƹͤȼ֤αžףͤ

ߥ󥰥ΥХ˥ȥå͡7ͤ

2015/05/21 18:57

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2015ǯ5211127ʬ

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ܺݤˤȡӸƵԤϣ塢Ǽġ֣ͤפ˲»Ҥޤ̾󤲤ơֵդ館ʤ褦ˤƤפʤɤȽ񤭹ߡĵܷٻη򶯲ʤɶ̳˸롣

ȸ īʹ


»Ҥޡȶ43ˡְդפͳȤ

2015/05/21 11:52

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ȸ ƥī˥塼




ڤä vs ŵԡۥ˥ۿԤ˽Ϲ԰١ٻˤʤ 2ߤǼΩ

ͭ̾˥ۿ2ͤ˸Ȥʤꡢ˼˿äƤä󤬡ŵԤ˴Ťĩȯ

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θ塢ߤǮʤꡢܤĺãŵԤϡĤ˽ԤȯŸ

ϡŵԤˤ˽Ϲ԰٤ΰϽ




ŵԤˤ˽Ի塢äۿ2ߤǼ̤Ȥ롣




˽Ը塢ŵԤպۿ

ŵԡŬڤ˽Ϲ԰١ѿޤǤ




ŵԤϡäͤĤȤΤ

ä󡧡ǻɤ줽ˤʤäϲäƤʤ




˽ԻˤꡢŵԤϥ˥ưθͥå롣ͳϥ˥εȿ˳ᡣŵchåˤĤƥƥեʡθ




ŵԤθͥå褦ɥ󥴱Ĥ󤷤ƤΤϡʤξǯ֥Υפä


ʥꥢǡɿɤ󶡤Ƥ쥹ȥŦȯȺ˴Ϳ11

ʥꥢΥ쥹ȥǿ󶡤ƤȤȯС

2015.05.20

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󶡤ƤȤĺɤޤ줿쥹ȥ󤬤褦BBC˥塼ҥˤСʥꥢΥʥ֥齣ˤ뤳Υ쥹ȥθܵҤƱŹ󶡤ƤȤȷٻ󤷤Ȥ

ٻܺԤäȤŹ˿ʹ֤ƬݴɤƤ뤳Ȥȯ졢ƱŹ󶡤뿩ؤȻѤѤȤäȤ

ϸ̱1ͤϡ֤ˤϤߤܤ餷ʹ򤷤ͤԿʿʪꤷƤΤǡԤƤΤԿ˴ƤޤפäƤ롣

ȺδϢˤꡢٻ10ͤᤷȸƤ롣

ȸ ӥå




ڳȯBreaking NewsۥҥȤʤ󶡤Ƥ쥹ȥ11̾ᡣʥʥꥢ

2015ǯ0518 11:25

ʥꥢΥ쥹ȥǥҥȤʤ󶡤Ƥ뤳ȤȯФٻϴط11̾ᡣŹŹɤޤ줿ºݤ˿٤ҤʹĤ󤷤ٻϥǤ϶ʤܤˤȤ

ҥȤҤ󶡤ƱĶ̿򿩤äΤϡʥꥢΥʥ֥齣ˤۥƥιʤȤΤ쥹ȥ󡣿򤷤ҤˡʤԿ餻֥ҥȤǤϤʤפȤ뤳ȤʹĤƷٻ󤷤

BBC News Swahili٤ƤȤˤСٻŹĴȯΤϥҥȤȻפΤΤĤʬǼˤˤϥեޤ줿ޤʷΤʹ֤Ƭ⤢ä˻Ѥ줿ȤߤƤơȤʤä͡νͭʪǤäǽΤä¿äȤˤ쥹ȥбļԤ11̾ᤵ졢ߤΥ쥹ȥϱĶߤȤʤäƤ롣

ϸο͡BBCμФֿȤʤջ͡Υۥƥ˽ФäꤷƤ뤳Ȥ鵤ˤʤäƤޤΤӤΥ˥塼ΤꡢʤۤɤȤäΤǼƤޤפʤɤȸäƤ롣ޤΥ쥹ȥǿ򤷤ȤȤηϡ֥Ȥ줿ҤǤȤƤ⵮ŤȤȤȤˡʧ蘆ޤפϳ餷Ƥ롣
TechinsightJapanԽJoy

ȸ TechinsightJapan


Nigerian restaurant closed down for serving human flesh

Police have found several human heads, ak47s, and grenades in the kitchen of a upper class hotel restaurant, the restaurant was serving human flesh at expensive prices.







ƹȯİƤԵ̣֥ݥץƥåɡ

ƹζĤ֥ݥץƥåɡʽˡפ!!

2015.05.21

Trumpets

򺣡鶲ĤȤԻ׵ĤʸݤƹȯƤ뤳Ȥ¸Τ ˤ⤽νִ֤򻣱Ƥ뤳Ȥ͡꼡ưYouTubeפʤɤƤȤǡΰͤʻ֤ǧ褦ˤʤꡢ̤ƤǤΤ



βϡޤǥȥڥåȤʤɤζɳڴϤǿᤤΤ褦ʡ粻ۥ顼DzΥ󥷡Ǿ΢򤫤ۤɡɤɤͤʵۤФƤ롣ƻƼԤϰͤˡñʤǤϤʤϤǤ¿οͤʹƤȸ·롣



ηϵġꥢ󤫤ΥåʼHAARPʤɤʤɡߤθᤰƹΥǥǤϤޤޤʲ¬ӸäƤ롣ޤΡإϥͤۼϿ٤ˤϡŷȤåѤ᤭Ĥ餷ơֺǸοȽפγϤ𤲤ȤεҤ⤢뤿ᡢβϤФС֥ݥץƥåɡν𤲤벻ˡפȤΤ롣



οǯδ֤˥ꥫʥȥꥢѹ񡢥ե󥹡ڥ󡢥ǥޡΥ륦ݡɡꥷ㡢饤ʡ٥롼֥饸롢ʤɡۤdzǧƤ֥ݥץƥåɡס4ˤϡɥĤǤȯ



ʤ17ѻMETROפNASAθ󤸤Ƥ롣ˤȡβ絤ŸݤȼȯżȡʶšˤǤǽ⤤ȤۤȤɤξ硢䤿Ÿݤ˵ŤȤϤʤǾȯƤΤΤ褦NASAθȤƤ⡢Τ褦˼ʹ뤳ȤǤ륱ȯƤΤϡϤϵDz餫ΰѤƤ뤿ǤϤʤ



ۤˤ⡢ϵΥץ졼ȤưȤ໤̤ǤȹͤʳؼԤ⤤褦ξ硢βץ졼ȤζΥ줿ϤǤǧƤ¤򡢰ΤɤΤ褦ǤΤ ˤƤ⡢֥ݥץƥåɡȯΥᥫ˥बڤ줿ǤϤʤϥåꤷȤïˤ狼ʤȤΤΤ褦



̤ơ֥ݥץƥåɡȯ΢ǡब⤷ʤä֤ʹԤƤǽϤΤ ٤Ƥο¤餫ˤʤϡĤˤʤΤ

Խ



ȸ TOCANA


Are mystery 'trumpet blasts' in sky from God?

apocalypse

In the final book of the New Testament known as the Book of Revelation, angels are shown to be sounding trumpets, accompanied by a variety of supernatural plagues upon Planet Earth.

And now, mysterious, unexplained sounds in the sky that some are likening to trumpet blasts are puzzling people all over the world, including the United States.

As Britains Daily Mail reports, Sounding like a trumpet or a collective from a brass section of an
orchestra, a selection of videos shot from the Canada to Ukraine, via the U.S., Germany and Belarus show strange goings on above us.

Get in-depth details about angelic trumpet blasts as well as both the FIRST and SECOND resurrection (yes, theres a second one, too) in this autographed best-seller that explains in detail whats coming in your future!

Numerous videos are posted on YouTube from spots across the globe, with people wondering just what is causing the strange phenomenon.

See video and hear the mysterious sound for yourself:

ȸ WND


ΡUFOϥ󥿡ɤΥȥꥢֻ͡Ͽ͡˸ɽǤʤ¤ΤäƤ

500UFOܷ⤷ȥꥢָ͡ɽǤʤ¤ΤäƤ

2015.05.21

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եθߤΥ饤եȤ⤤UFO˻ޤǤˤϡĤΤ뵭ä²ǥɥ饤֤Ƥȡμ֤ˤĤƤԻ׵ĤʪΤʤܷ⤷иΤȤۤˤ⡢ľκ鲿٤UFOܷ⤷Ƥեϡ֡ʥȥꥢΡ˥UFOΥۥåȥݥåȤפȸäƤ롣ϤˤϷѵ¿ԤƤΤUFOϷιҶȤʪˤʤʤ餤®齬ˤUFO뤳Ȥ¿Ȥ

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⡢ζդǤϺʤUFOܷ󤬸䤿ΥȰȤˤȤäƤѶ̣ʤΤ



UFOΨɽեΥ

եϼȤΥȡUFO territory.com.auפ˻ƤUFOμ̿¿ǺܤƤ뤬ʳˤ⼫ȤǡUFO ACTIVITY SCALEɡUFOư¬ˤǡ㡦̡⡦ȯפ4ʳʬUFOΨɽƤƤΤʤȤޥʿͤǤ롣

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ƸߤUFO᡼򸫤ƤߤȡʤȡֳȯפؤƤǤϤʤ᤯ȥꥢعԤϤҤȤ򸫾夲ƤߤƤۤ⤷UFOܷǤ뤫⤷ʤܷ⤷ݤϥȥԽؼ̿Ƥ˺ʤ

ʸ

ȸ TOCANA


UFO expert spots disk-shaped craft speeding high above the Australian desert - and says he has had 500 close encounters

An Australian man believes he spotted an extraterrestrial visitor on Saturday, when a UFO emerged in the sky above the Northern Territory.
Alan Ferguson captured the close encounter on camera on Saturday morning, when an alien
spaceship soared above his Acacia Hills property about 50km south of Darwin.
The UFO expert, who documents sightings from around Australia on his website UFOTerritory, said he set his camera on a fast-speed loop.

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The unusual occurrence has become somewhat normal for Mr Ferguson, who told Daily Mail Australia he has seen more than 500 UFOs.
'Over the years it would be a large amount somewhere around 500-plus at least - it's ongoing all the time,' he said.

'If it's not flashes in the sky... it's an annoying warm gut feeling to go outside. They let me know.' Mr Ferguson said his life-long study of the skies started in the back of his parents car on a family drive.

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Mr Ferguson told Daily Mail Australia he has seen '500-plus' UFOs in his life, like this one in central Australia

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Mr Ferguson said this photo was taken in 2009, near Palmerton, Northern Territory

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Mr Ferguson took this picture of a triangle shaped craft after seeing flashes in the sky with no sound in July 2008

'I was eight years of age, and out the back of the FC Holden going home to Albury I saw one,' he said. 'It was a blue, red and white object following the car.
'Also, when I was three years old, my mum had me in her arms and a UFO was sitting just above the house in Albury. The lights under it started spinning fast then it shot straight up into the sky.
'Screams were heard by the neighbours and it was sighted again over the Hume Dam.'
Mr Ferguson said his adopted home, the Northern Territory, was
'It's a hot spot up here due to lots of military exercises,' he said.
'Some I have seen could be human military air vehicles no doubt. They are the slow ones but the ones that take off in a blur, they aren't from here.'

288

According to this scale on Mr Ferguson's website, UFO activity is low at the moment

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This photo, taken in August, 2008, allegedly shows a UFO lurking in the night sky near a helipad

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Mr Ferguson took this photo of a 'bowl shaped craft with a window area at the front' after seeing flashes in the sky in June, 2008

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Mr Ferguson said this 'two winged craft' appeared in the sky and then quickly disappeared



He also said most people are 'good about it' when he tells them what he has seen, and 'only the closed minded people laugh but that's their problem'.
As for the big question - is the truth out there?
'I have answers but the information can't be told to the general public.
'I can't go anymore into it as would blow your mind.'

ȸ Daily Mail

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ʥåݡ롦إ䡼᤬ֱȯֱͤϥͥХƶϤƯƤ

饤ʤǤΤΤȤϻפʤʪȯ

礭2Ĥθ͵ġ!? ΤΤȤϻפʤʡȲɤȯᥦ饤

2015.05.21
 
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ߡSNSǼĥȤ̤ˤʤäƤԻ׵Ĥʼ̿˼̤äƤΤϡ褽ΤΤȤϻפʤʡȲɤ礭2ĤθΤ褦ʤΤμϤˤϸǤӡʡˤƤ롣ˤθϡŤˤ·äȻפ¿͵ġġΤϲȤΤ

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θ塢̿ϥηǼĥȤͥåȥǥ̤ƳȻΰͤʻѤݤΤۤ餫ѰΡΥʬϤޤʪ˰㤤ʤȤޤޤȿƤǤͤ

ȥʤȤƤϡDzإ2 ¡٤о줹ۡλ೼äȻפȤġġ褯иۤɡ餫οʪǤǽⴶƤޤ̤ƺ塢ΤȽ

Խ

ȸ TOCANA

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 ԧݧҧݧקߧߧ ڧݧ


ʥåݡ롦إ䡼᤬ֱȯֱͤϥͥХƶϤƯƤ

ֱͤϵƯƤץʥäĶȯꡪ

2015.05.11

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Ĥκ餫ֱͤϤǤϵˬƤפԻΤ褦Ƥα̩ˤʤܴطԤ¿ʹʤʤ1963ǯ67ǯδ֡ʥι̳᤿ݡ롦إ䡼᤬륬꡼ؤιֱǡֱͤϲǯϵˬƤꡢ˼˾ƤפȼĥλƳԤˡ˱;򳫼褦᤿Ȥơ422˱꥿֥ɻDailyMailפʤɡʣǥ󤸤

ܤϱͤ¸ߤ򱣤Ƥ롪

2005ǯ˽UFO¸ߤإ䡼ϡͤ¸ߤäܤ˷پĤ餹٤ѶŪ˳ưƤʪǡޤǤ⤵ޤޤʥǥǡֱͤϲǯϵˬƤꡢ桹βʳصѤοϱͤβäˤΤפȼĥƤ롣ơͤι٤ʵѤܤˤơϥޥåסLEDƥåʤɤȯΤȸäƤΤ

ޤְαͤۤȤɤαͤϿФῼϤޤˤĹ֡˹ۤʷ򤫤ο˺Ƥ桹ϳʼȯǺƤӸѤ뤳ȤСΤߤʤ餺ΤˤƶڤܤȤˤʤפȱͤϳʼѤ뤳Ȥ˷پĤ餷ƤȤĥͤϡ桹δĶФͤޤǤϡ٤ʱ赻ѤȶͭĤϤʤȤ

ƷϤ˱ͤƯƤ롩

ޤإ䡼ˤϵˤ4αͤˬ䤷ƤƤꡢˤϲ桹ʶ餷Ƥ뱧ͤ⤤ȤȤإ䡼϶Ū3αͤħꡢؤ⤯ͤ˻Ƥ֥ȡۥ磻ȡסĹ150cmۤɤ礭ƬȺ٤­ġ֥硼ȥ쥤סۤˤ̲ͤΤ褦ʳζ⿧ȱαͤȤ

ơ֥ȡۥ磻ȡפϡͥХˤƶϤƯƤȸƤꡢܤαͱٻ͡δ֤ˤʤäƤΤͥХˤϡ֥꡼ϡפDzإȥåץ٤ˤʤä֥ͥꥹϡפ¸ߤ뤬ˤ˴ͿƤȤƷ̩ϡ֥졼ࡦ쥤ϡ̾Ρꥢ51ˡפ⤢롣ͤƤ̩ᤤ䤨ʤꥢ51Ǥ뤬ब֥ȡۥ磻ȡפζ̳ϸ˵󤲤Ȥǡʤ벱¬ƤǤΤ

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ȥʤǤ٤ʤߤUFOȤΥåȡ󥰻ϡ֥إ䡼᤬ͤˤĤƸ뤿ӡꥢ¸ߤͤο͡ǧ뤳ȤǤ롣Ͼ󳫼˸礭ʿǤפȥإ䡼Ǯդ仿Ƥ롣

ͤ¸ߤɽФεѤ򷳻ϤѤȻפ¿إ䡼ϺǸˡֲ桹ϸߤ򻦤ΤǤϤʤߤ礤ʿ¤ؤƻǹԤ٤Ǥפȸäޤ̤Ǥ롣

ʸ

ȸ TOCANA




ʥɱäˤUFOꥢ󳫼

Υӥǥϥʥɱäξ󳫼ԡΰȴǤ



ݡ롦إ䡼ݡ롦إ䡼ϥʥIJκǯİˤʤäʪǤꡢ-ǺǤ㤯ƳνȤʤäʪǤ롣

2005ǯ925ˡUFOԵǤΤƱ餤-ŪʤΤǤפȸȯɽŪ礭󤸤줿λˤꡢG8-Ȥγν٥UFO¸ߤǧȯ򤷤ǽοʪȤʤä

ʥ꤬Ŧ4αͤϵƤ

2013.06.17

ꥫΥϥեȥ󡦥ݥȤΥʥˡʥꡢݡ롦إ䡼UFOꥢȯ󤸤Ƥ롣

ݡ롦إ䡼ϡʥIJ23ǯ;İ̳᤿ΤȤˤUFOˤĤƤȤThe Day After Roswell(ˮإڥ󥿥αš)ɤUFO˴ؿĴϤᡢӤƥꥫܤ䷳UFO򳫼٤ʤƤ롣

ϥեȥ󡦥ݥȤˤϡ亮ȥDCǹԤ줿UFOꥢֿ̱֥ͤ󡦥ҥ󥰡󡦥ǥ㡼פǥإ䡼᤬ȯƤξ󤬺ܤƤ롣ΥݥȤϰʲΤ褦ʤΤ

ʤȤ4Υꥢ󤬲ǯδ֡ϵƤ롣륨ꥢΤ5̾ϡ֥ƥ롢ץ쥢ǥꥪ󡢥ɥ路(륿)ס

ʤȤ2ͤꥫܵؤƯƤ롣ϵ岹ȲʤɡΥƥΥϵߤȤǤ롣ξ󳫼ˤࡢġֱܡפꥫˤ¸ߤŪۤ褦Ȥΰ㤤͡¤Ƥ롣

ꥢ󡦥֥Ūҡ󡦥ޥåΤνҡPassport to the cosmos(ؤΥѥݡ)顢֥ꥢ󼫿ȤϿǤϤʤ񤤤ϿΤ褦ﳲԤϰӤơϿλȼԤΤ褦˹ưȸäƤפȰѤإ䡼ϰʲΤ褦˷ŤƤ롣

ֻ䤿ϵͤϤäȥԥ奢¸ߤˤʤ٤μפʽˤ϶̤ʬ"ǥ󡦥롼"롣¹ԤƱο¤졢ΥƥΥϵߤȤǤפȡ

ĤޤꡢϵϺ٤ƤνΥǥ󡦥롼Ū˥륢åפϵŪǤΩơϱؤ򳫤ƤȤȤ()

ȸ ХƥWeb

2015-09-21_090652

ʥθá֥ꥢƹܤƱפȾڸ



ɥ15Фξǯ֥Υ ̳˸Ƶ

֥ɥ׾ǯλҺפζ̳˸Ƶ

2015/05/21 11:52

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ĹԤǾ̵͵֥ɥפ15Фξǯư趦ͭȤƤλҺפζ̳˸ǡٻģᤵ줿
 
ǯ14ĻƲ᤯ηǰۤǡɥФȤȤݸ줿ۤ15ˤ⡢ĶĮθࡢ19ˤϡͭĮնǤݸ졢ưˤʤäƤ
 
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5Ⱦǯμ𤫤顢ɥäȤߤХå줿οθ1ǯФȤǡܺ򤫤ᤷ

ᤵ줿ͻԤ̵15Фξǯϡ51415ˤơͥåȾư趦ͭȤǡΤפ꤬롣פ˹ԤޤפȥͥåѤȯ˥ɥػߤŽŽʤɤפζ̳˸Ƥ롣
 
ᤵ줿ǯϡ֤Ǻפ꤬ߤʤ衣Ԥޤ衣Ԥޤ顣ƶػߤʤƽ񤤤Ƥʤ顣פ̵֤ǤפäƤ

ǯϡĹǥɥۤդʤɤǥɥФȤơ꼡ݸƤĴ٤Фơǯϡ֤錄ϡɥФȤϰäƤޤפƵǧƤ롣

ȸ FNN˥塼




оǯᡡ𡦻Һפǡ֥ɥФͽ𡢶̳˸ε

2015.5.21 09:09

̵͵֥ɥפĻƲ᤯˻ʤɤƤͻԤ̵ξǯʣˤˤĤơٻģϣҡˤλҺפǥɥФȤȯ򥤥󥿡ͥåȾƤȤơ϶̳˸Ƶᤷ

ܺطԤˤȡǯϡҺפǥɥФȤȯͥåȤƤ˷򶯲ʤɡ̾ζ̳˸ȤƤ롣

ΤɤᡢɥλѤ򤷤ʤ褦ۡڡǸƤӤƤ

Ƥơդ侯ǯμնٲƤܺ塢Ķ赪ĮëǡͥåѤ򤷤ƤǯȯɥФȤǿ̳򤷤ơդΤƤ˰ϤƤ

ǯĹԤǤɥˤʤäƤˤĻƲ᤯θǤɥФȤդƤ

ǯϡԤ棱˴ͿƤȤ뾯ǯμͥåѤʪĤƤ

ȸ пʹ





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ܺʻ᤬ᤵ줿ǯ֥ΥפȽ

ܺʻ᤬ᤵ줿ǯ֥Υפ˥ޥ15ФˤʤäơסǤ

2015ǯ521 205ʬ

21Ρ֥ߥͲסܥƥӷϡˤǻʲεܺʻ᤬ᤵ줿ǯ˥ޥ줹뤬ä

ȤǤϡҺפ˥ɥФͽ𤷤֥Υפ̾15оǯ󤸤ξǯϡɥȤä󥿡ͥåۿ򷫤֤ٻƻդƤȤ

VTRǤϡɥλߤػߤȤȤˡ򶯲ͻҤǤ줿ƲͻԤ̵ξǯϡ϶̳˸εᤵ줿Ȥ

ޤξǯϡǯ2βߤ1ǯξ¼󤬻줿Ǥư򵯤Ƥ롣¼λƵᤵ줿ǯμưѤΤ¼̵ĤΩäۿ⤷Ȥ

Ǥϡӥޥʥ󥵡˾ǯưޤȤƤ̤ǡܺ᤬ǡߡ֤ʤȤäƤ뤳ȼΤ⤦ͤ͡ȤɤΤΤäȽǤĤƤʤȼΤפȡӤ餲

³Ƶܺϡ֡ؼʬʤ򻣤äơοͤơ˸ⲽǤ٤äơä鲿򤷤ƤɤäƤ15ФˤʤäơȤ򤷤ƤޤΤǤ͡Ǥ衢졪פܤϪˤ

ܤθĴޤʤܺϡ֤ʤȤäƲˤʤͤ󡣤²ΤȤʬȤ򿶤֤äȤˡɤʻפͤ󡪤̵ġʥηǡˤȤʤȡݤʤȻפޤ͡פʤ

ȸ ȥԥå˥塼

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ڴϢ
ǥɥ15оǯΥ뤬ĻƲζ᤯ǥɥФȤơٻ˻İ

ƥХ޽˽ࣵФξǯۡ쥹˿־ǯοޤư˿͡ޡ

ۡ쥹˿򡽡ǯͥ˿͡

2015.05.21 Thu posted at 09:57 JST
 
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ʣãΣΡ ˽Ф쥹ȥγˤʤ򤹤ۡ쥹ΩäƤ顽ƥХ޽˽ࣵФξǯʾ̤ǸޤưˡòäƤ롣
 
Ʊץåȥӥ߽ΥСե©ҤΥ祵ʣˤȰϸΥ쥹ȥͼȤäƤ祵ŹγޤΩäƤ뤳Ȥ˵դե乶ˤ롣
 
֤οͤϥۡ쥹ס֥ۡ쥹äƲΤȡס֤ȤʤȤ̣ס϶ʢ˰㤤ʤȿۤ祵٤Ƥ褦Ƥե⤽Ʊդ
 
֤οͤŹäʤ˺¤äɡʸ褦ȤʤäפȡեϿ֤롣祵ʸˤϥ˥塼͡פݤϰ¤ϥСܤȤե󤿤ֲǤ⹥ʪǡפȸȡ֥١դƤʡפȿҤͤȤֹʤɤפȡե
 
ȥ祵ˡֿΤפ򤷤褦ȸФֿͤ˴դޤפȲΤ祵Ź˶碌ͤۤɤεҤ碌롣ϵ㤭ˤʤꡢեϤ᤽ξˤ⤬ޤήȤ
 
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ϤޤʤŹФƹԤäեϡ֤餷ʤϡƤȤƺǹλפФˤʤǤ礦פäƤ롣

ȸ CNN.CO.JP


Five-year-old boy pleads with mother to buy homeless man food

Josiah Duncan, troubled by the dirty and dishevelled appearance of a man, asked his mother what was wrong and what homeless meant

The faith and generosity of one young boy left restaurant-goers in tears after he asked his mother to buy a homeless man food in the US.
Five-year-old Josiah Duncan found one man's rough appearance so disconcerting, he asked his mother what was wrong.

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Five year-old Josiah Duncan insisted on helping the man (WSFA 12 News)
When Ava Faulk explained that he was homeless, Josiah asked: "What does that mean?"
He asked many more questions, WSFA 12 News reported on Sunday, including "Where is his house? Where is his family? Where does he keep his groceries?"
According to Ms Faulk, it was the man's lack of food which troubled him most during the incident a few weeks ago in Prattville, Alabama.

Josiah_Duncan_waff_3309592b

The Waffle House in Prattville, Alabama (WSFA 12 News) "He didn't have any food," Josiah said, who then pleaded with his mother to buy the man some food. Ms Faulk told WSFA: "[The homeless] man came in and sat down and nobody really waited on him. So Josiah jumped up and asked him if he needed a menu because you cant order without one."

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Josiah Duncan talks to the homeless man in the Waffle House (Eva Faulk)
The homeless man asked for a hamburger but Ms Faulk insisted he could have whatever he wanted. The five-year-old then wished to say grace loudly before the man began eating, moving the restaurant with 11 other customers to tears.
Ms Faulk, who contacted WSFA via email about her son's generosity, said: "The man cried. I cried. Everybody cried."

ȸ The Telegraph

ץȥ졼äDzԤ͡»ֳ͡DzԤͤϥɥब

DzԤͤϡ֡פ!? ץȥ졼DzԤ͡»

2015.05.17
 


ԤμʤϰĤǤϤޤ¿οͤϲҤäƯвȤƤ餦ȤԤ򤹤Ǥ礦¾ˤ⼫ʬǻȤΩ夲ꡢư򤷤ꡢʪäʤɤˡޤ

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ϴñ˼ФƤǤȤǤϤޤ

ĽΤ򱿱ĤĿͥȥ졼ĹϡDzԤ³뤿ˤȤǤϤʤȥ졼ܻؤ٤Ȥޤȥ졼ϥѥβ̤˱ǤΥ㡼Ȥ򸫤ơȽǤޤ˥㡼ȤѲİиȷŤͤƤ̤ʤСĹŪ˲Ԥ褦ˤϤʤޤ󡣡֥饯٤ϤɤˤʤΤǤ

ơĤ󤤤勞Υȥ졼ˤϸԸޤǤϡ㡼ȤȤäƤΥȥ졼˸ƤͤϤɤʿͤʤΤǤ礦

ȥ졼˸Ƥͤϡ֥ɥब

פƤȤϡ˾äƤȡʬμκ̣ƺͽ¬줬о餱Ĥʾɥɥʤڤͤϡȥ졼ɤ˸ƤĤϸޤ

ϡɥƥӥबʿ̤ͤ뷹Ǥηи§龡ĤΥѥƳФƾ餷äˤϾλ䤴˫롣ǴӤϥȥ졼ɤDzԤȤǤȤδӤƱʤΤȤ

ʤϥɥबǤ

ȥ졼˸ƤͤϡֲڤळȤǤ

ȥ졼ϥ㡼Ȥ򸫤ᤴƤޤĤ󤤤勞δ񤷤ȤͤƤ櫓ǤϤʤüʸ򤹤С֤ƤפʤΤȤ

ǤϡɤäƳǤΤǤ礦

ĤϡֲΥѥõƤפȤˡǤäƤޤˤϲΤηޤäưηꡢưηˤäƳ夬äꡢäꤷޤƤηи§ƧޤƸߤΥ㡼ȤƤϤᡢ褦ʷõΤǤ

иѤѤۤɡȽǤϸޤƤޤȤⰭȤޤơߤᡢڤळȤǤ뤫줬ץȥ졼ȤƤλˤʤΤǤ

ȥ졼˸ƤͤϡֶϾعԤäϷ鷺˵

Ͼ˹ԤȡοͤϷäǮƤޤ餬ǸƤΤϴŪˤϼʬϤơ졼ι֤˶ϿʹɤǸ椷ޤʬϤäƤޤ

ˤͤϥȥ졼ˤϸƤʤ⤷ޤ󡣾Ť˼ϤϤϤɬפʥȥ졼ϡïξǰ־äƤΤˤ褦Ȥޤ㤨мżԤJRAϿʹԡӡڿ䤹ŹʤɡξǤԤǤͤϤ󤤤뤳Ȥ˵ŤǤ礦

ޤϤΥ졼Ǿ餹硢ƤΥ졼Ǿ餷褦ȤͤŵŪʡֲԤʤ͡פιưѥ󡣥졼ޤǤ˥ǡ򸡾ڤƤʥ졼Ǿ餹ͤԤͤħǤ

Ĥ󤬼ɮؤäDzԤ͡»͡١ʽѼҡˤϡDzԤͤˤʤ뤿ˡָĿȡפǤϤʤָĿͥȥ졼פܻؤ٤ȤǡιưϤ׹ˡȵѤ򶵤ƤǤ

ǿͤʤϤƤ⡢ñ˲Ԥ褦ˤϤʤޤȼԤѤ߽ŤͤȽϤƤʤСԤͤˤʤʤΤǤܽϥץθĿͥȥ졼Ȥ뤿ζŪˡҲ𤷤ƤΤǡͤˤƤߤƤ

ʿJPԽ

ȸ ӥͥ㡼ʥ


ȥ졼ɤǾƤ
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ޤߤʤꤲͤϡߤ⾡Ƥʤ

פˡܤǡֶ⤬ϤƤפΤŤǤͤȥ졼ɤǾƤ롣֥åѥĵžפʤ̴Τޤ̴̴

٤äƤΤϡܤǤưǼȾڷҤμҰ

ؤǤϥѥ꤬ƤȤͭäޤäʹ֤ʤǡ餱ʹ֤¿Τ顢餫פäΤʿˤʤꤽ

Ͼ夬ȻפäƲäƤʤ»ˤϤʤʤͤʤפФ롣

ƣΣ٤˽70δڹ͹Ԥޥɥʥɤǹͤ˽Ԥ

ڿϷͣ͡Σ٥ޥɥʥɤǹͤ˽Ԥ

2015ǯ05201557ʬ

ƹ˥塼衼ʣΣ١ˤ˽ࣷδڿ͹ԤޥɥʥɤΤŹޤǣιͤ˽ԤȤ줿 

˥塼衼ڹϣʸϻ֡ˡ˥塼衼󥺶˰֤뤢ޥɥʥɤŹޤǡҡ򥪡ƤڿͤΥʣˤͣʡʣˤ󤸤 

ƻˤȡθʤܷ⤷ʣˤڿϷͣͤߤ뤿˶ȡʤˤ򿶤󤷤äˡϣʤ˽Ϥդ뤦̤̿˻ƤŹޤζޤɤĤƷ㤷˽ԤäȤʬä 

ϥեå±˱ФƼŤʤƽưٻˤäƸǼ겡줿Ʊ

ȸ


NY۰ޥåŹ򤹤ڹϷͤ

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McDonald's at war... with a gang of gossiping Korean pensioners: Burger chain calls police over seniors it claims spend their days hogging booths at NY branch chatting over shared $1 bag of fries

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ڹ桦Υ˥塼衼Ǥ29󤸤Ȥˤȡϥեå󥰤Υ᡼󥹥ȥ꡼ȤˤޥɥʥɤǺǯ216455ʬ˻Ƥ줿ΤǡڹϤΥॺव62ˤŹޤνޥͥ㡼50ˤĹ1.6᡼ȥۤɤĹܤ˽ԤƤͻҤǤäƤ롣

ﳲԤ̳ͤˡΧ̳Υڤ󥺤θꤷ

εҤ󥿡¤Ǥˤ⤫餺ʸŹ1ͤ餺ۤŹ3̤ͤλŻ򤷤Ƥꡢ̤ꤷƤȤ

व15ʬۤԤäԤ֤Ĺ᤮פȹĤȡޥͥ㡼ϡ֤Τ褦ʤĤˤϥҡʤפȸäŹγغव˽ФƤ褦׵ᤷäव󤬷äŹͻҤ򻣱ƤϤȡޥͥ㡼ϼ򿶤󤷤äåȤ䤬ĹܤФʬǥवμ򤿤äϾ»

δ֡ۤŹϥޥͥ㡼ιư򸫤Ƥǡ˽Ԥव˼դ뤳Ȥ⤷ʤäˤϹĤ륭व򸫤ƾФäƤŹ⤤

ޥͥ㡼55ʬ˶դٻˤᤵ줿ߤ϶̳ƤȤ

वϥޥͥ㡼ȥޥɥʥɤܼҡ˥塼衼ټҤ1000ɥ12ߡˤ»̱ʾ٤򵯤ڤ˽ԤͻҤ줿򥯥󥺷Ƚ˾ڵȤФͽ

ڤΥڡ󥮥ɽ۸ΤϡֵҤФ٤äȤͳˡŹ˽Ԥä Ȥǧ줿ĤҤɤޤ᤿Ҥ˽ϤԻȤȤ⸫ᤴʤפäƤ롣

۸ΤϡطʤˤϿͼﺹ̤ȤŦƤ롣ۤεҤԤ֤ĹȤ˹Ĥޥͥ㡼ϥϤεҤˤΤ߲Ҥȿ˽Ϥä

Ʊեå󥰤ˤޥɥʥɤŹޤǤϺǯ1ڹϤιԤĹֵ¤äƤȤŹɤФ郎ȯ˥塼衼ॺʤɤ硹Ū󤸤졢ڹΤ㱿ưư

ȸ NEWSISīܸ

˥塼衼ΥޥɥʥɡڹͤιԤ

2014ǯ25 0144ʬ

20526

ƥ˥塼衼ԥ϶ȯͭ̾եȥաŹޥɥʥɤηбļԤȴڹϰ̱ιԤưϡʥȥݥꥹǸᤴƤĤʸŪ򼨤Ƥ롣

˥塼衼ԥΥϽ̱¿餹եå󥰤ΥΡ̤ȥѡ󥺡֥С̤θѤˤޥɥʥɤǤϡδڹͤҡ뤤ϥե饤ɥݥƥȤʸĹֺʤꤹ뤿ᡢ(ϥС俩)¾εҤŹǺ¤줺ȰǺޤƤ롣

ŹΥޥ͡㡼ˤ˷ٻ911(ƹζ۵ֹ)ϢƹԤδڹͤŹɤʧȤᡢϤ˲в֤򻶤餹Ȥˤʤ롣ʸȤƤ̱ߥ˥ƥο͡ϡԤºŤ⤯ɾ٤ܤ򤢤ˤƤ롣

ϸȡ˥塼衼İ(̱)Υ󡦥(Ron Kim)ϡեåϰɽƺǶ1ĤŶƤФ༫ȤڹƹͤǤꡢԤȥޥɥʥɤδ֤Ρֵפ𤷡ŹηбļԥåС(Jack Bert)12ͤδڹ͹ԤŶ˻ä

ڹͤϸ113ޤǤΡֺӡװʳλ֤ϡŹκʳݤƤɤȤˤʤäϸԥ󥿡ޥɥʥɤؤιԤθ̼ʤ󶡤(Ǥᤤڹ͹Ԥ20֥å˽ǤƱ󥿡󤸤)

ޤСȤȽȰϡ塢ڹͤĹ֤ںߤʤɤư褹뤿˷ٻˤäʤȤˤʤäΤ˥ӥͥŸƤ澮ȷбļԤεȡ꤬ɬפʹԤ򤹤פȥİϸꡢϸʹΥ󥺡˥ξɤΥХ󥹤Ȥ褦ؤ᤿Ȥȯɽ

İϡIJФ줿δڹƹ֤ͤʶˤĤƿͼﺹ̤亹ԶǤϤʤषʸŪפǤȰ֤ŤƤ롣֥եå󥰤20ǯӥͥԤäƤȷбļԤϡӥͥη³ޤʤ顢ϸڤƤפϸä

ʸŪͻϤƤϸδڹͤˤϺ٤ʸ̱ҲιԤФ뿼󼨤ƤȸԤ⤤롣ڹ񥳥ߥ˥ƥӥ(KCS)ϼ˹Ԥٱ礹ȿ꡼(Linda Lee)̳Ĺϡ֤ܤޤäƤ뤬κܤˤΤϡڹڤΤμҲ񥵡ӥѲǽʥ꥽­ǤȹͤƤ롣ԤԤä֤Ȼ֤ᤴΩȽͭ¿ξɬפפȥ˥˸ä

ˡϡ(Sunny Hahn)ϥեå󥰤˥󥺤δڹϥꥫͶdzưƤ뤬֤ϥޥɥʥɤǥҡΥ롼פϤ뤫ĶΤΤ˽ʬʻߤ¸ߤʤȤΤᤷڹϤΥѥ󲰤Ǥ⤳ξбǤƤʤפϥ˥˸ä

ƥ˥塼衼ॺϡԤδڹͤϡԴ󡢤뤤ϼְػҤɬפʿͤ¿ˤϴݰޥɥʥɤDzᤴ(ͤ1ˤĤ20ʬʾλ֤򤫤ʤǤɤ˷ǼƤˤ⤫餺)1դΥҡĹ֤ᤴƤ󤸤

ڹͤˤϸ5ˤŹŤʤޤŹںߤԤ⤤롣󤶤뤳ȤϤǤʤޥ󡦥ҥ󡦥꡼(Man Hyung Lee)(77)ٻˤäƥޥɥʥɤγذĥФ줿ϻ˽ФƹԤ褦̿ФƹԤä1֥åդ⤤ơŹäפϸä

쥹ȥ󽾶ȰϹδڹͤʤꤷʧäƤ¾θܵҤ¤ʤ˼˾Сӥͥ˥᡼ˤʤȼĥƤ롣֤ϥޥɥʥɤԥ󥿡ǤϤʤפȥޡ(Martha Anderson)ͥޥ͡㡼ϥॺʤ

ХȤǤޥɥʥɼҤϡΤ褦̯ǧƤ֤񤷤פȥޥɥʥɤιôԡꥵޥ(Lisa McComb)ϥॺ˸äŹǤϡĹ֡Τͤ򴿷ޤƤԤδڹͤŹĹںߤ뤳ȤϡޥɥʥɽȰȤˤĤʤäƤפȸä

İ𤹤ˡ󥺤ΰδڹͤǯĹԤؤб˹ĤơƱ϶ΥޥɥʥɤΥܥåȤƤӤƤֹԤȺԤȤư٤ǤϤʤפȥ˥塼衼δڹβ(Korean Parents Association of New York)Υꥹƥ󡦥ꥬ(Christine Colligan)ϡեå϶ΰŹǹijư˽Ҥ٤ֹԤºŤ٤ǤפȤƥꥬ󤵤ϡֿͼﺹ̡פΥޥɥʥɤ񤷡2˥ޥɥʥɤŪʥܥåȤƤӤ

֤ʤʤФƷٻƤ֤פȥꥬ󤵤ϥॺ˸äִڹͤιԤȺԤΤ褦˼갷Τʤ顢ϴڹΤФǤ롣ڹͤιԤ;ȤΥȥå101ĤˤޤǹηкϤƤºɤͤפƱΤǼĥƤ롣

ڹƹͤγưȥƥ󥹡ѡ(Terence Park)ϡޥɥʥɤδڹ͹ԤȺԡפΤ褦˰٤ǤϤʤäϤ䡢ФǤ롣ä򤹤ɬפפȥѡϥ˥˸ä¿ΤäƤʤޤɬפȤƤפȥѡդä

ȤƤδ֡ڹͤϸ˽ޤ뤳Ȥ򹥤बߤˤϸˤϤ줺ޤ뤿βŬʾ꤬ʤ֤ĤơϥޥɥʥɤǤ֤֤餷Ƥΰäפȥѡϸä

ϸˡ̳ɤηٻǡȤϴڹƹͤΥҥ󡦥ѡ(Hee-Jin Park-Dance)ϡٻϤοͤեå󥰤¿ͤʥߥ˥ƥǤμҲʸѲ򤹤ɬפǧ᤿ִڹʤɤΥʸǤϡǯĹԤºɤ롣ǯĹԤ򸫤Ω夬äơʤ롣ºɤǰɽ路Ƥ롣ߥ˥ƥΤɬפפϥॺ˸ä

˥塼衼δڹƹӥͥIJ󥸥󡦥(Young Jin Kim)ĹϡǯĹԤºŤϿĹĽפǤפȤơ̳ͥ褹뤳Ȥ򼨺

٤Ƥδڹͤ(˥塼衼Ǥ⥽Ǥ)եȥաɤΥ쥹ȥĹںߤƱ˦˶Ƥ櫓ǤϤʤڹαѻ楳ꥢॺϡեå󥰤μ㤤ڹͤˤϡ¿뤳Ȥʤڹ͹ԤޥɥʥɤĹ֤ᤴΤϥƥѤƤȻפäƤȽҤ٤

֥ޥɥʥŹͭ̾Ǥ뤬ɾȽϰȸ٤⤷ʤפȥեå󥰤Υࡦ(Kim Ji-sun)(27)ϥꥢॺ˸äŹȰܤǡ췲ιδڹͤŹΤʤιͭƤΤ狼פȽҤ٤ޤ̤μ㤤ڹͤΥ롦ϥ(Sul Ji-hae)ϡֻϺ򤱤뤿˥30ʬŹ˹Ԥ󥿡˹ϤʤʤϤʤĤȾƤΤϴڹͤιԤפȥꥢॺò

ڹΥ饤󡦥ǥѼԤҤޥɥʥɤΥܥåȤƤȽִڹιԤ23ͤ1ɥ(100)Υҡ򥷥ƺ佼롣ˤϥåפȤ˻ꡢƤӻäƤƤ佼롣ڹͤȤƸƤѤפȽҤ٤

ޤꥢॺϡ¿Υϰ̱ޤեå󥰤ҡǤ֤֤餹ڹͤˤȤäƥߥ˥ƥ󥿡ԥ󥿡¸ߤˤʤäƤꡢޥɥʥɤϰ²ΰȤƳΩ줿ȤʤäƤ뤿ᡢѤƤȻŦ֤ο͡¾˹Ԥ꤬ʤȤ櫓ǤϤʤ

Ϥޥɥʥɤ˹ԤΤäƤ롣ϤߤʤޤդꤹɬפϤʤפȥեȥաŹθǥбĤ륽(Seo-Ji-woo)ϽҤ٤ĹԤäƤ⡢˹ԤäƤ⡢٤Ǥ륷˥ͧã򸫤Ĥ뤳ȤǤ롣ڤΥȤǤʤڤԤ碌Ǥ롣

ƹϢ(AAP)ˤȡ˥塼衼ԤˤƹǺ¿δڹƹͤ餷3ܤ礭̱²ĤƤȤ˥塼衼ԤδڹͿ2008ǯ2011ǯˤ11%103,000ͰʾȤʤäΤ3ʬ2δڹͤϥ˥塼衼⥯϶餹

ޤAAPΥǡϡڹͤ¾Υ˥塼衼ν̱٤ȡ⤤٥㤤ƸϺΨݻƤǡ˥ϺΨ25.5%ȹ⤤Ǥ뤳Ȥ򼨤Ƥ롣δڹͤιԤϱѸϤ㤤ȤǤϫƤ롣եå󥰤ΥޥɥʥɤҤˤƤ¿δڹͤϡȤϺؤ⤷ʤ

ȸ 󥿡ʥʥӥͥ˥塼

˭Ԥϩ50ФΥХХž֤˼֤ͤùߡ1ͤռνΡ2ͤŽ

ɤȴȿмĤϤ߽ФƻƸͤù

2015/05/20 16:43

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йξ˼֤ͤùߡ1ͤΤǤ ˭Ԥϩǡ¼Ƶԡ50ˤž֤йξ˸ͤùߤޤ5ͤˤλҤȡ᤯ˤ40Фν򤷤ޤ7ФˤλҤƬιޤäưռνΤǡ11Фˤλ2ͤޤʤɽŽǤ

ٻˤޤȡ¼ƵԤμ֤Ԥμ֤ɤȴȿмˤϤ߽ФơƸͤùǽȤȤǤ¼ƵԤϡּʬλҤɤääפäƤޤ

ȸ ƥī˥塼




˼֡ͤϤͤ롡ͰռͽŽ

2015ǯ5201141ʬ

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ʬ˭ԼƸĮܤλƻǡйλΩëعλƸ˾Ѽ֤ͤùߡǯ˻һƸͤȼž֤̹νʣˤηףͤ򤷤ܷ٤ˤȡǯ˻ʣˤռνΡȤˣФΣǯ˻ͤŽĤΣͤڽȤߤȤ

ܷ٤ϡ֤žƤҰ¼ƵԡʣˡƱԵܻĮܡưֱžȳˡȿʲἺž׽ƵǸᤷֻΤ򵯤Τϴְ㤤ޤ󡣤ʤǻΤ򵯤ΤϤ褯פФʤפȶҤƤȤ

˭ˤȡΤ˻Ƭ򶯤ǤäƤȤŽ˻ͤιޤʤɤƤ롣ڽȤߤΤϤȤˣФΣǯ˻ͤȼž֤ν

Υ졼Ƹؤ󣶣᡼ȥν𳹡󣷡᡼ȥ¦λƻǡƻϤʤƸͤƻϩαü⤤ƤȤ˸֤ͤùȤƸΤͤϼ֤βߤˤʤä

ФܷԤξڸǤϡ¼ƵԤμ֤Ԥ򤷤Ƥ֤򤱤褦ȤиˤϤߤݤ˻ƸϤͤȤĴ٤Ф¼ƵԤϡּʬ̼ääפƤȤ¼ƵԤƤϼФ̼Τ򵯤Ƥޤäääǯۤɼ֤žƤ뤬ΩäȿΤϤʤäȻפפä

˭ԾˤȡƱʬ̹Կָ̻ͤΤä򤷤Ƥפʤɤȣ󤬤äȤ

ȸ īʹ

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